Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates
The accompanying interim condensed financial statements of the Company are unaudited. These interim condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The December 31, 2021 condensed balance sheet was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and market-specific or other relevant assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The amounts of assets and liabilities reported in the Company’s condensed balance sheets and the amounts of expenses and income reported for each of the periods presented are affected by estimates and assumptions, which are used for, but are not limited to, determining research and development periods under collaboration arrangements, stock-based compensation expense, valuation of marketable securities, impairment of long-lived assets, income taxes and certain accrued liabilities. Actual results could differ from such estimates or assumptions.
The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition, including revenue, expenses, manufacturing, clinical trials, research and development costs and employee-related amounts, will depend on future developments that may be uncertain, including as a result of new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain or treat it, as well as the economic impact on local, regional, national and international customers, suppliers, service providers and markets. The Company has made estimates of the impact of COVID-19 within its financial statements and there may be changes to those estimates in future periods. Actual results could differ from such estimates or assumptions.
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments of a normal recurring nature considered necessary to state fairly the Company’s financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss, and cash flows for the interim periods. The interim results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2022, or for any other future annual or interim period.
The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
There were no new accounting pronouncements issued since our filing of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, which could have a significant effect on our condensed financial statements.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the balance sheets that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the condensed Statements of Cash Flows.
Investments in Equity Securities
Vaxcyte common stock held by the Company is measured at fair value at each reporting period based on the closing price of Vaxcyte’s common stock on the last trading day of each reporting period, with any realized or unrealized gains and losses recorded in the Company’s condensed Statements of Operations.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability, or an exit price, in the principal or most advantageous market for that asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date and establishes a fair value hierarchy that requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs, where available, and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The Company determined the fair value of financial assets and liabilities using the fair value hierarchy that describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value, as follows:
Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities;
Level 2—Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The carrying amounts of accounts receivable, prepaid expenses, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and accrued compensation and benefits approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these items.
The fair value of the Company’s outstanding loan (See Note 6) is estimated using the net present value of the payments, discounted at an interest rate that is consistent with market interest rate, which is a Level 2 input. The estimated fair value of the Company’s outstanding loan approximates the carrying amount, as the loan bears a floating rate that approximates the market interest rate.
When the Company enters into collaboration agreements, it assesses whether the arrangements fall within the scope of ASC 808 (Collaborative Arrangements (ASC 808)), based on whether the arrangements involve joint operating activities and whether both parties have active participation in the arrangement and are exposed to significant risks and rewards. To the extent that the arrangement falls within the scope of ASC 808, the Company assesses whether the payments between the Company and its collaboration partner fall within the scope of other accounting literature. If it concludes that payments from the collaboration partner to the Company represent consideration from a customer, such as license fees and contract research and development activities, the Company accounts for those payments within the scope of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. However, if the Company concludes that its collaboration partner is not a customer for certain activities and associated payments, such as for certain collaborative research, development, manufacturing and commercial activities, the Company presents such payments as a reduction of research and development expense or general and administrative expense, based on where the Company presents the underlying expense.
The Company has no products approved for commercial sale and has not generated any revenue from commercial product sales. The total revenue to date has been generated principally from collaboration and license agreements and to a lesser extent, from manufacturing, supply and services and materials the Company provides to its collaboration partners.
The Company derives revenue from collaboration arrangements, under which the Company may grant licenses to its collaboration partners to further develop and commercialize its proprietary product candidates. The Company may also perform research and development activities under the collaboration agreements. Consideration under these contracts generally includes a nonrefundable upfront payment, development, regulatory and commercial milestones and other contingent payments, and royalties based on net sales of approved products. Additionally, the collaborations may provide options for the customer to acquire from the Company materials and reagents, clinical product supply or additional research and development services under separate agreements.
The Company assesses which activities in the collaboration agreements are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately. The Company develops assumptions that require judgement to determine whether the license to the Company’s intellectual property is distinct from the research and development services or participation in activities under the collaboration agreements.
At the inception of each agreement, the Company determines the arrangement transaction price, which includes variable consideration, based on the assessment of the probability of achievement of future milestones and contingent payments and other potential consideration. The Company recognizes revenue over time by measuring its progress towards the complete satisfaction of the relevant performance obligation using an appropriate input or output method based on the nature of the service promised to the customer.
For arrangements that include multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the transaction price to the identified performance obligations based on the standalone selling price, or SSP, of each distinct performance obligation. In instances where SSP is not directly observable, the Company develops assumptions that require judgment to determine the SSP for each performance obligation identified in the contract. These key assumptions may include full-time equivalent, or FTE, personnel effort, estimated costs, discount rates and probabilities of clinical development and regulatory success.
Upfront Payments: For collaboration arrangements that include a nonrefundable upfront payment, if the license fee and research and development services cannot be accounted for as separate performance obligations, the transaction price is deferred and recognized as revenue over the expected period of performance using a cost-based input methodology. The Company uses judgement to assess the pattern of delivery of the performance obligation. In addition, amounts paid in advance of services being rendered may result in an associated financing component to the upfront payment. Accordingly, the interest on such borrowing cost component will be recorded as interest expense and revenue, based on an appropriate borrowing rate applied to the value of services to be performed by the Company over the estimated service performance period.
License Grants: For collaboration arrangements that include a grant of a license to the Company’s intellectual property, the Company considers whether the license grant is distinct from the other performance obligations included in the arrangement. For licenses that are distinct, the Company recognizes revenues from nonrefundable, upfront payments and other consideration allocated to the license when the license term has begun and the Company has provided all necessary information regarding the underlying intellectual property to the customer, which generally occurs at or near the inception of the arrangement.
Milestone and Contingent Payments: At the inception of the arrangement and at each reporting date thereafter, the Company assesses whether it should include any milestone and contingent payments or other forms of variable consideration in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur upon resolution of the uncertainty, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability of achievement of each milestone and any related constraint and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Since milestone and contingent payments may become payable to the Company upon the initiation of a clinical study or filing for or receipt of regulatory approval, the Company reviews the relevant facts and circumstances to determine when the Company should update the transaction price, which may occur before the triggering event. When the Company updates the transaction price for milestone and contingent payments, the Company allocates the changes in the total transaction price to each performance obligation in the agreement on the same basis as the initial allocation. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period of adjustment, which may result in recognizing revenue for previously satisfied performance obligations in such period. The Company’s collaborators generally pay milestones and contingent payments subsequent to achievement of the triggering event.
Research and Development Services: For amounts allocated to the Company’s research and development obligations in a collaboration arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue over time using a cost-based input methodology, representing the transfer of goods or services as activities are performed over the term of the agreement.
Materials Supply: The Company provides materials and reagents, clinical materials and services to certain of its collaborators under separate agreements. The consideration for such services is generally based on FTE personnel effort used to manufacture those materials, reimbursed at an agreed upon rate in addition to agreed-upon pricing for the provided materials. The amounts billed are recognized as revenue as the performance obligations are met by the Company.
Revenue subject to governmental withholding taxes is recognized on a gross basis with the withholding taxes recorded as a component of income tax expense.