Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and market-specific or other relevant assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The amounts of assets and liabilities reported in the Company’s balance sheets and the amounts of expenses and income reported for each of the periods presented are affected by estimates and assumptions, which are used for, but are not limited to, determining research and development periods under collaboration arrangements, stock-based compensation expense, valuation of marketable securities, impairment of long-lived assets, income taxes and certain accrued liabilities. Actual results could differ from such estimates or assumptions.
The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition, including revenue, expenses, manufacturing, clinical trials, research and development costs and employee-related amounts, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain, including as a result of new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain or treat it, as well as the economic impact on local, regional, national and international customers, suppliers, service providers and markets. The Company has made estimates of the impact of COVID-19 within its financial statements and there may be changes to those estimates in future periods. Actual results could differ from such estimates or assumptions.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) 2016-13 (Topic 326), Financial Instruments Credit Losses. The guidance modifies the measurement and recognition of credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments. The amendment updates the guidance for measuring and recording credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost by replacing the “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 in the third quarter of 2021 using the modified retrospective adoption approach. As a result of this adoption, the Company presents these financial assets, which include accounts receivable and available-for-sale debt securities, at the net amount the Company expects to collect. The amendment also requires the Company to record credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities as an allowance through net income rather than reducing the carrying amount under the historical, other-than-temporary-impairment model. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements and related disclosures for the year ended December 31, 2021.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 (Topic 842), Leases (Accounting Standards Codification, or “ASC”, 842). ASC 842 supersedes the lease recognition requirements in ASC 840, Leases. ASC 842 clarifies the definition of a lease and requires lessees to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for all leases, including those classified as operating leases under previous lease accounting guidance. The Company adopted ASC 842 on July 1, 2021, effective as of January 1, 2021. There was no impact on the Company’s accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2021 as a result of the adoption of this standard. Results for the period ended December 31, 2021 are presented under Topic 842. Other prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the Company's historic accounting under previous lease guidance, ASC Topic 840: Leases (“Topic 840”). The Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance of the new standard, which allowed the Company to carry forward its historical assessment on whether a contract is or contains a lease, lease classification, and initial direct costs. Upon adoption on January 1, 2021, the Company recognized operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets of $29.7 million, and current and non-current operating lease liabilities of $2.9 million and $27.8 million, respectively. In connection with the adoption of this standard, deferred rent of $1.3 million and prepaid rent of $0.3 million, which was previously recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets on the balance sheet as of December 31, 2020, were derecognized. Finance lease assets and liabilities were not material. The adoption of ASC 842 did not have a material impact on the Company’s Statements of Operations and Statements of Cash flows.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting”, which provides optional expedients and exceptions for a limited period of time to ease the potential burden in accounting treatments related to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. Adoption of the expedients and exceptions is elective and is permitted upon issuance of the guidance through December 31, 2022. The Company does not expect that the new guidance will have material impact on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Marketable Securities and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of 90 days or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Investments with original maturities of greater than 90 days from the date of purchase but less than one year from the balance sheet date, or where the Company's intent is to use the investments to fund current operations or to make them available for current operations are classified as current, while investments with maturities in one year or beyond one year from the balance sheet date are classified as long-term investments.
Available-for-sale marketable securities are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Realized gains and losses are included in interest income in the Company’s Statements of Operations. There were no material realized gains or losses in the periods presented. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific-identification method.
The Company evaluates, on a quarterly basis, its marketable securities for potential impairment. For marketable securities in an unrealized loss position, the Company assesses whether such declines are due to credit loss based on factors such as changes to the rating of the security by a ratings agency, market conditions and supportable forecasts of economic and market conditions, among others. If a credit loss exists, the Company assesses whether it has plans to sell the security or it is more likely than not it will be required to sell any marketable security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either condition is met, the security’s amortized cost basis is written down to fair value and is recognized through interest and other expense, net.
If neither condition is met, declines as a result of credit losses, if any, are recognized as an allowance for credit loss, limited to the amount of unrealized loss, through interest and other expense, net. Any portion of unrealized loss that is not a result of a credit loss, is recognized in other comprehensive income (loss).
The Company invests in money market funds, commercial paper, corporate debt securities, asset-based securities and U.S. government agency securities with high credit ratings. The Company has established guidelines regarding diversification of its investments and their maturities, with the objectives of maintaining safety and liquidity while maximizing yield.
Under certain agreements, the Company has pledged cash and cash equivalents as collateral. Restricted cash related to such agreements was $0.9 million and $0.9 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.
A reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the Company’s Balance Sheets to the amount reported within the accompanying Statements of Cash Flows was as follows:
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities consist of financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a concentration of credit risk, to the extent of the amounts recorded on the balance sheets. The Company minimizes the amount of credit exposure by investing cash that is not required for immediate operating needs in money market funds, government obligations and/or commercial paper with short maturities.
The Company performs a regular review of its collaborators’ credit risk and payment histories when circumstances warrant, including payments made subsequent to year-end. When appropriate, the Company provides for an allowance for credit risks by reserving for specifically identified doubtful accounts, although historically the Company has not experienced credit losses from its accounts receivable.
Investments in Equity Securities
Subsequent to the closing of the initial public offering (“IPO”) of Vaxcyte, Inc. in June 2020, the fair value of Vaxcyte’s common stock became readily determinable. As a result, beginning June 2020, Vaxcyte common stock held by the Company is measured at fair value at each reporting period based on the closing price of Vaxcyte’s common stock on the last trading day of each reporting period, with any unrealized gains and losses recorded in the Company’s statements of operations.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is determined using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, generally to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the term of the lease. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred and costs of improvement are capitalized.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets, including property and equipment, leasehold improvements and right-of-use assets for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when the estimated, undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition are less than its carrying amount. Impairment, if any, is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of a long-lived asset exceeds its fair value.
The Company did not recognize any impairment charges during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, management believes that no revision to the remaining useful lives or write down of the remaining long-lived assets is required.
The Company determines if an arrangement is or contains a lease at contract inception by assessing whether the arrangement contains an identified asset and whether the lessee has the right to control such asset. The Company is required to classify leases as either finance or operating leases and to record a ROU asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term greater than 12 months regardless of the lease classification. The lease classification will determine whether the lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest rate method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The Company determines the initial classification and measurement of its ROU assets and lease liabilities at the lease commencement date and thereafter, if modified. The Company does not have material finance leases.
For leases with a term greater than 12 months, the Company records the related ROU asset and lease liability at the present value of lease payments over the term of the lease. The term of the Company’s leases equals the non-cancellable period of the lease, including any rent-free periods provided by the lessor, and also includes options to extend or terminate the lease that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise. The ROU asset equals the carrying amount of the related lease liability, adjusted for any lease payments made prior to lease commencement and lease incentives provided by the lessor. Variable lease payments are expensed as incurred and do not factor into the measurement of the applicable ROU asset or lease liability.
The Company has elected, for all classes of underlying assets, not to recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities for leases with a term of 12 months or less. Lease cost for short-term leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company has also elected to not separate lease and non-lease components for its leases and, as a result, accounts for lease and non-lease components as one component.
The Company’s leases do not provide a readily determinable implicit rate. Therefore, the Company estimates its incremental borrowing rate to discount the lease payments based on information available at lease commencement. The Company determines its incremental borrowing rate based on the rate of interest that the Company would have to pay to borrow, on a collateralized basis over a similar term, an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment.
Lease payments may be fixed or variable; however, only fixed payments are included in the Company’s lease liability calculation. Lease costs for the Company’s operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis within operating expenses over the lease term. The Company’s lease agreements may contain variable non-lease components such as common area maintenance, operating expenses or other costs, which are expensed as incurred.
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09 (Topic 606), Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration that the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
When the Company enters into collaboration agreements, it assesses whether the arrangements fall within the scope of ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements (ASC 808) based on whether the arrangements involve joint operating activities and whether both parties have active participation in the arrangement and are exposed to significant risks and rewards. To the extent that the arrangement falls within the scope of ASC 808, the Company assesses whether the payments between the Company and its collaboration partner fall within the scope of other accounting literature. If it concludes that payments from the collaboration partner to the Company represent consideration from a customer, such as license fees and contract research and development activities, the Company accounts for those payments within the scope of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. However, if the Company concludes that its collaboration partner is not a customer for certain activities and associated payments, such as for certain collaborative research, development, manufacturing and commercial activities, the Company presents such payments as a reduction of research and development expense or general and administrative expense, based on where the Company presents the underlying expense.
The Company has no products approved for commercial sale and has not generated any revenue from commercial product sales. The total revenue to date has been generated principally from collaboration and license agreements and to a lesser extent, from manufacturing, supply and services and materials the Company provides to its collaboration partners.
The Company derives revenue from collaboration arrangements, under which the Company may grant licenses to its collaboration partners to further develop and commercialize its proprietary product candidates. The Company may also perform research and development activities under the collaboration agreements. Consideration under these contracts generally includes a nonrefundable upfront payment, development, regulatory and commercial milestones and other contingent payments, and royalties based on net sales of approved products. Additionally, the collaborations may provide options for the customer to acquire from the Company materials and reagents, clinical product supply or additional research and development services under separate agreements.
The Company assesses which activities in the collaboration agreements are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately. The Company develops assumptions that require judgement to determine whether the license to the Company’s intellectual property is distinct from the research and development services or participation in activities under the collaboration agreements.
At the inception of each agreement, the Company determines the arrangement transaction price, which includes variable consideration, based on the assessment of the probability of achievement of future milestones and contingent payments and other potential consideration. The Company recognizes revenue over time by measuring its progress towards the complete satisfaction of the relevant performance obligation using an appropriate input or output method based on the nature of the service promised to the customer.
For arrangements that include multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the transaction price to the identified performance obligations based on the standalone selling price, or SSP, of each distinct performance obligation. In instances where SSP is not directly observable, the Company develops assumptions that require judgment to determine the SSP for each performance obligation identified in the contract. These key assumptions may include FTE, personnel effort, estimated costs, discount rates and probabilities of clinical development and regulatory success.
Upfront Payments: For collaboration arrangements that include a nonrefundable upfront payment, if the license fee and research and development services cannot be accounted for as separate performance obligations, the transaction price is deferred and recognized as revenue over the expected period of performance using a cost-based input methodology. The Company uses judgement to assess the pattern of delivery of the performance obligation. In addition, amounts paid in advance of services being rendered may result in an associated financing component to the upfront payment. Accordingly, the interest on such borrowing cost component will be recorded as interest expense and revenue, based on an appropriate borrowing rate applied to the value of services to be performed by the Company over the estimated service performance period.
License Grants: For collaboration arrangements that include a grant of a license to the Company’s intellectual property, the Company considers whether the license grant is distinct from the other performance obligations included in the arrangement. For licenses that are distinct, the Company recognizes revenues from nonrefundable, upfront payments and other consideration allocated to the license when the license term has begun and the Company has provided all necessary information regarding the underlying intellectual property to the customer, which generally occurs at or near the inception of the arrangement.
Milestone and Contingent Payments: At the inception of the arrangement and at each reporting date thereafter, the Company assesses whether it should include any milestone and contingent payments or other forms of variable consideration in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur upon resolution of the uncertainty, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability of achievement of each such milestone and any related constraint and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Since milestone and contingent payments may become payable to the Company upon the initiation of a clinical study or filing for or receipt of regulatory approval, the Company reviews the relevant facts and circumstances to determine when the Company should update the transaction price, which may occur before the triggering event. When the Company updates the transaction price for milestone and contingent payments, the Company allocates the changes in the total transaction price to each performance obligation in the agreement on the same basis as the initial allocation. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period of adjustment, which may result in recognizing revenue for previously satisfied performance obligations in such period. The Company’s collaborators generally pay milestones and contingent payments subsequent to achievement of the triggering event.
Research and Development Services: For amounts allocated to the Company’s research and development obligations in a collaboration arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue over time using a cost-based input methodology, representing the transfer of goods or services as activities are performed over the term of the agreement.
Materials Supply: The Company provides materials and reagents, clinical materials and services to certain of its collaborators under separate agreements. The consideration for such services is generally based on FTE personnel effort used to manufacture those materials reimbursed at an agreed upon rate in addition to agreed-upon pricing for the provided materials. The amounts billed are recognized as revenue as the performance obligations are met by the Company.
The Company maintains a stock-based compensation plan as a long-term incentive for employees, consultants, and members of the Company’s Board of Directors. The plan allows for the issuance of restricted stock units, non-statutory and incentive stock options to employees and non-statutory stock options (“NSOs”) to nonemployees. The Company also maintains an employee stock purchase plan.
Share-based payments, including purchases under the Company’s employee stock purchase plan, are measured using fair-value-based measurements and recognized as compensation expense over the service period in which the awards are expected to vest. The Company’s fair-value-based measurements of awards to employees and directors as of the grant date utilize the single-option award-valuation approach, and the Company uses the straight-line method for expense attribution. The fair-value-based measurements of options granted to nonemployees are remeasured at each period end until the options vest and are amortized to expense as earned. The Company accounts for forfeitures of stock-based awards as they occur. The valuation model used for calculating the estimated fair value of stock awards is the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires the Company to make assumptions and judgments about the variables used in the calculations, including the expected term (weighted-average period of time that the options granted are expected to be outstanding), the expected volatility of the Company’s common stock, the related risk-free interest rate and the expected dividends.
Research and Development
The Company records accrued expenses for estimated costs of the research and development activities conducted by third party service providers, which include outsourced research and development expenses, professional services and contract manufacturing activities. The Company records the estimated costs of research and development activities based upon the estimated amount of services provided but not yet invoiced, and includes these costs in current liabilities in the balance sheets and within research and development expense in the statements of operations.
Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities are deferred and capitalized and recognized as an expense as the goods are delivered or the related services are performed.
For outsourced research and development expenses, such as professional fees payable to third parties for preclinical studies, clinical trials and research services and other consulting costs, the Company estimates the expenses based on the services performed, pursuant to contracts with research institutions that conduct and manage preclinical studies, clinical trials and research services on the Company’s behalf. The Company estimates these expenses based on discussions with internal management personnel and external service providers as to the progress or stage of completion of services and the contracted fees to be paid for such services. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from the original estimates, the Company will adjust the accrual accordingly. Payments made to third parties under these arrangements in advance of the performance of the related services by the third parties are recorded as prepaid expenses until the services are rendered.
The Company provides for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Current income tax expense or benefit represents the amount of income taxes expected to be payable or refundable for the current year. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial statement reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and net operating loss and credit carryforwards, and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when such items are expected to reverse. Deferred income tax assets are reduced, as necessary, by a valuation allowance when management determines it is more likely than not that some or all of the tax benefits will not be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 740-10, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes. The Company assesses all material positions taken in any income tax return, including all significant uncertain positions, in all tax years that are still subject to assessment or challenge by relevant taxing authorities. Assessing an uncertain tax position begins with the initial determination of the position’s sustainability and is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. As of each balance sheet date, unresolved uncertain tax positions must be reassessed, and the Company will determine whether (i) the factors underlying the sustainability assertion have changed and (ii) the amount of the recognized tax benefit is still appropriate. The recognition and measurement of tax benefits requires significant judgment. Judgments concerning the recognition and measurement of a tax benefit might change as new information becomes available.
The Company includes any penalties and interest expense related to income taxes as a component of Interest and other income (expense), net, as necessary.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability, or an exit price, in the principal or most advantageous market for that asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date, and establishes a fair value hierarchy that requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs, where available, and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The Company determined the fair value of financial assets and liabilities using the fair value hierarchy that describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value, as follows:
Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities;
Level 2—Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The carrying amounts of accounts receivable, prepaid expenses, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and accrued compensation and benefits approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these items.
The fair value of the Company’s outstanding loan (See Note 7) is estimated using the net present value of the payments, discounted at an interest rate that is consistent with market interest rate, which is a Level 2 input. The estimated fair value of the Company’s outstanding loan approximates the carrying amount, as the loan bears a floating rate that approximates the market interest rate.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period, without consideration for potential dilutive common shares. Basic net loss per share is the same as diluted net loss per share as the inclusion of all potentially dilutive securities would have been anti-dilutive given the net loss of the Company.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef