S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 4, 2019

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Sutro Biopharma, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   46-0926186

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150

South San Francisco, California

94080

(650) 392-8412

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

William J. Newell

Chief Executive Officer

Sutro Biopharma, Inc.

310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150

South San Francisco, California

94080

(650) 392-8412

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Robert A. Freedman

Amanda Rose, Esq.

Effie Toshav, Esq.

Ryan Mitteness, Esq.

Fenwick & West LLP

555 California Street

San Francisco, CA 94104

(415) 875-2300

 

Edward C. Albini

Chief Financial Officer

Sutro Biopharma, Inc.

310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150

South San Francisco, California

94080

(650) 392-8412

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earliest effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐


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If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I. D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company       

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered(1)

 

Amount

to be
Registered(1)(2)

  Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Security(3)
 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price(3)

 

Amount of

Registration Fee(4)

Common stock, $0.001 par value per share

               

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share

               

Debt securities

               

Warrants

               

Subscription rights

               

Units

               

Total

          $250,000,000   $32,450

 

 

(1)

There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of (a) common stock, (b) preferred stock, (c) debt securities, (d) warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the Registrant, (e) subscription rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the Registrant, and (f) units, consisting of some or all of these securities in any combination, as may be sold from time to time by the Registrant. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. There is also being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock and debt securities as shall be issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities that provide for such issuance. In no event will the aggregate offering price of all types of securities issued by the Registrant pursuant to this registration statement exceed $250,000,000.

(2)

Pursuant to Rule 416(a), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or similar transaction.

(3)

The proposed maximum offering price per share and proposed maximum aggregate offering price for each type of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder.

(4)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $250,000,000 of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $75,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement dated October 4, 2019 with Cowen and Company, LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $75,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $250,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED OCTOBER 4, 2019

PROSPECTUS

$250,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Sutro Biopharma, Inc.

Common Stock, Preferred Stock,

Debt Securities, Warrants, Subscription Rights and Units

 

 

From time to time, we may offer up to $250,000,000 aggregate dollar amount of shares of our common stock or preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities, in any combination, together or separately, in one or more offerings, in amounts, at prices and on the terms that we will determine at the time of the offering and which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. The total amount of these securities will have an initial aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000.

You should read this prospectus, the information incorporated, or deemed to be incorporated, by reference in this prospectus, and any applicable prospectus supplement and related free writing prospectus carefully before you invest.

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “STRO.” On October 3, 2019 the last reported sales price for our common stock was $8.23 per share. None of the other securities we may offer are currently traded on any securities exchange. The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus.

 

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus before investing in our securities.

Common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights and/or units may be sold by us to or through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers or through agents designated from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, discounts or commissions, details regarding over-allotment options, if any, and the net proceeds to us will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2019


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     PAGE  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     4  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     6  

INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     8  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23  

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

     25  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     26  

LEGAL MATTERS

     27  

EXPERTS

     27  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, from time to time, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $250,000,000. We have provided to you in this prospectus a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities under this shelf registration process, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. We may also add, update or change in the prospectus supplement any of the information contained in this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement; provided that, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer have authorized anyone to give you any information or to make any representation other than the information and representations contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. We and any agent, underwriter or dealer take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. You may not imply from the delivery of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, nor from a sale made under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, that our affairs are unchanged since the date of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or that the information contained in any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or any sale of a security. This prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement may only be used where it is legal to sell the securities.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO OFFER AND SELL SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADDITIONAL PROSPECTUS OR A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

In this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Sutro,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Sutro Biopharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained in other parts of this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, and our other filings with the SEC listed below under the heading “Incorporation of Information by Reference.” This summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in securities. You should read the entire prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” and the financial data and related notes and other information incorporated by reference, before making an investment decision. See “Forward-Looking Statements.”

Our Company

We are a clinical stage drug discovery, development and manufacturing company focused on deploying our proprietary integrated cell-free protein synthesis platform, XpressCF, to create a broad variety of optimally designed, next-generation protein therapeutics initially for cancer and autoimmune disorders. We aim to design therapeutics using the most relevant and potent modalities, including cytokine-based targets, immuno-oncology, or I/O agents, antibody-drug conjugates, or ADCs, and bispecific antibodies that are directed primarily against clinically validated targets where the current standard of care is suboptimal. We believe our platform allows us to accelerate the discovery and development of potential first-in-class and best-in-class molecules by enabling the rapid and systematic evaluation of protein structure-activity relationships to create optimized homogeneous product candidates. Our mission is to transform the lives of patients by using our XpressCF Platform to create medicines with improved therapeutic profiles for areas of unmet need.

Our two most advanced product candidates are wholly owned: STRO-001, an ADC directed against CD74, for patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or NHL, and STRO-002, an ADC directed against folate receptor-alpha, or FolRα, for patients with ovarian and endometrial cancers. STRO-001 and STRO-002 are each currently enrolling patients in a Phase 1 trial.

We have also entered into multi-target, product-focused collaborations with leaders in the field of oncology, including a cytokine derivatives collaboration with Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, or Merck, a B Cell Maturation Antigen, or BCMA, with a BCMA ADC now in phase 1 clinical evaluation, and an immuno-oncology directed alliance with Celgene Corporation, or Celgene, and an oncology-focused collaboration with Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany (operating in the United States and Canada under the name “EMD Serono”), in which an undisclosed novel bispecific solid tumor-targeting ADC has been recently nominated as a development candidate.

The Securities We May Offer

With this prospectus, we may offer common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities in any combination. The aggregate offering price of securities that we offer with this prospectus will not exceed $250,000,000. Each time we offer securities with this prospectus, we will provide offerees with a prospectus supplement that will contain the specific terms of the securities being offered. The following is a summary of the securities we may offer with this prospectus.

Common Stock

We may offer shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share.



 

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Preferred Stock

We may offer shares of our preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, in one or more series. Our board of directors or a committee designated by the board will determine the dividend, voting, conversion and other rights of the series of shares of preferred stock being offered. Each series of preferred stock will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or the winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.

Debt Securities

We may offer general obligations, which may be secured or unsecured, senior or subordinated and convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock. In this prospectus, we refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities together as the “debt securities.” Our board of directors will determine the terms of each series of debt securities being offered.

We will issue the debt securities under an indenture between us and a trustee. In this document, we have summarized general features of the debt securities from the indenture. We encourage you to read the indenture, which is an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Warrants

We may offer warrants for the purchase of debt securities, shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities. Our board of directors will determine the terms of the warrants.

Subscription Rights

We may offer subscription rights for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue subscription rights independently or together with other securities. Our board of directors will determine the terms of the subscription rights.

Units

We may offer units consisting of some or all of the securities described above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and/or debt securities. The terms of these units will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The description of the terms of these units in the related prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable form of unit and unit agreement for complete information with respect to these units.

* * *

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in April 2003 under the name Fundamental Applied Biology, Inc. We subsequently changed our name to Sutro Biopharma, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (650) 392-8412. Our website address is http://www.sutrobio.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our securities.



 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2019, which is incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and documents incorporated herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties. We caution readers that any forward-looking statement is not a guarantee of future performance and that actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statement. These statements are based on current expectations of future events.

Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding expectations and intentions, costs and expenses, outcome of contingencies, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, cost savings, objectives of management, debt financing, our future results of operations and financial position, business strategies, market size, potential growth opportunities, clinical development activities, efficacy and safety profile of our product candidates, timing and results of our nonclinical studies and clinical trials, the receipt and timing of potential regulatory designations, our ability to maintain and recognize the benefits of certain designations received by product candidates, the achievement of clinical and commercial milestones, the advancement of our technologies and our proprietary product candidates, the successful achievement of the goals of our collaborations, the advancement of the product candidates that are the subjects of these collaborations, the approvals and commercialization of product candidates and other statements that are not historical facts. You can find many of these statements by looking for words like “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “may,” “might,” “should,” “will,” “could,” “plan,” “intend,” “project,” “seek” or similar expressions in this prospectus, in documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any free writing prospectus. We intend that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe harbors created thereby.

These forward-looking statements are based on the current beliefs and expectations of our management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. If underlying assumptions prove inaccurate or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from current expectations and projections. Factors that might cause such a difference include those discussed in Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2019, as well as those discussed in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or, in the case of documents referred to or incorporated by reference, the date of those documents.

All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable U.S. securities law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered hereby. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith or the documents incorporated by reference therein. For further information about us and the securities offered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith and the documents incorporated by reference therein. Statements contained in this prospectus regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act and are required to file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and various other information about us. You may also inspect the documents described herein at our principal executive offices, 310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150, South San Francisco, California 94080, during normal business hours.

Information about us is also available at our website at http://www.sutrobio.com. However, the information on our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. A Current Report (or portion thereof) furnished, but not filed, on Form 8-K shall not be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of any offering of securities made by this prospectus:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on April  1, 2019, including certain information incorporated by reference therein from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders, filed with the SEC on April 26, 2019;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on May  15, 2019 and August 14, 2019, respectively;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on May 7, 2019, June 10, 2019 and June  24, 2019;

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on September 18, 2018 under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

   

filings we make with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement.

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of such documents that has been incorporated herein by reference (other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus incorporates). Written or oral requests for copies should be directed to Sutro Biopharma, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, 310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (650) 392-8412. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” for information concerning how to obtain copies of materials that we file with the SEC.

Any statement contained in this prospectus, or in a document, all or a portion of which is incorporated by reference, shall be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not, except as so modified or superseded, constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds to us from the sale of our securities under this prospectus. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include funding research, clinical and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, increasing our working capital, reducing indebtedness, acquisitions or investments in businesses, products or technologies that are complementary to our own and capital expenditures. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities. Pending the application of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities covered by this prospectus to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them, and may also sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. We will name any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of securities in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have reserved the right to sell or exchange securities directly to investors on our own behalf in jurisdictions where we are authorized to do so. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. We will name in a prospectus supplement any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis, and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal for resale at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

We will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers, or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to reimburse them for certain expenses. We may grant underwriters who participate in the distribution of our securities under this prospectus an option to purchase additional securities to cover any over-allotments in connection with the distribution.

The securities we offer under this prospectus may or may not be listed through The Nasdaq Global Market or any other securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their option to purchase additional securities. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

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We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and they may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in these sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus. The financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

We will file a prospectus supplement to describe the terms of any offering of our securities covered by this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will disclose:

 

   

the terms of the offer;

 

   

the names of any underwriters, including any managing underwriters, as well as any dealers or agents;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities from us;

 

   

the net proceeds to us from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any over-allotment or other options under which underwriters, if any, may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any underwriting discounts, commissions or other items constituting underwriters’ compensation, and any commissions paid to agents;

 

   

in a subscription rights offering, whether we have engaged dealer-managers to facilitate the offering or subscription, including their name or names and compensation;

 

   

any public offering price; and

 

   

other facts material to the transaction.

We will bear all or substantially all of the costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of our securities under this prospectus. The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all the information that may be important to you. For a complete description, you should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.

As of September 30, 2019, there were 23,090,002 shares of our common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

Common Stock

Dividend rights

Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine. For more information about our dividend policy, see “Dividend Policy” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Voting rights

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our restated certificate of incorporation, which means that holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock are able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation establishes a classified board of directors, divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.

No preemptive or similar rights

Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.

Right to receive liquidation distributions

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors

 

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can also increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Warrants

As of June 30, 2019, we had outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 71,813 shares of our common stock at a weighted average exercise price of $10.86 per share.

Registration Rights

Pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, certain of our stockholders are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act, as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities.

Demand registration rights

The holders of at least a majority of the then-outstanding registrable securities may make a written request to us for the registration under the Securities Act of registrable securities representing at least a majority of the then outstanding registrable securities held by such holders. Promptly following such request, we are obligated to provide written notice of such request to all stockholders to file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering all registrable securities that the initiating holders requested to be registered and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders. We are only required to file two registration statements that are declared effective upon exercise of these demand registration rights. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 90 days, if within 30 days after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be seriously detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to be effected at such time.

Form S-3 registration rights

Any holder of then-outstanding registrable securities can request that we register all or part of their shares on Form S-3 if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the aggregate price to the public of the shares offered is at least $3.0 million. The stockholders may only require us to effect two registration statements on Form S-3 in a 12-month period. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing twice during any 12-month period for a total cumulative period of not more than 120 days if our board of directors determines in its good faith judgment that the filing would be seriously detrimental to us and our stockholders.

Piggyback registration rights

If we register any of our securities for public sale, holders of then-outstanding registrable securities or their permitted transferees will have the right to include their registrable securities in the registration statement. However, this right does not apply to a registration described under “—Demand registration rights” above, a registration relating to employee benefit plans or a registration relating to a corporate reorganization. The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be

 

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registered will be apportioned pro rata among these holders, according to the total number of registrable securities originally requested by such holders to be included in the registration statement. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced below 40% of the registrable securities such holders requested to be included in such offering.

Expenses of registration rights

We generally will pay all expenses related to the registrations, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

Expiration of registration rights

The registration rights described above will expire, with respect to any particular holder of these rights, on the earlier of a deemed liquidation event, as defined in our restated certificate of incorporation, and such time after this offering as the registrable securities held by such holder may be sold within any ninety day period without restriction pursuant to Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

The provisions of Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions, which are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Delaware Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

 

   

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, (i) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66.67% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction or series of transactions together resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of

 

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interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock. We expect the existence of this provision to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions our board of directors does not approve in advance. We also anticipate that Section 203 may also discourage attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock held by stockholders.

Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaw Provisions

Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our company, including the following:

 

   

Board of Directors vacancies. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors but promotes continuity of management.

 

   

Classified board. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

 

   

Stockholder action; special meetings of stockholders. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our restated bylaws. Further, our restated bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairperson of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.

 

   

Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations. Our restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

 

   

No cumulative voting. The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.

 

   

Directors removed only for cause. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

 

   

Amendment of charter provisions. Any amendment of the above provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation requires approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

 

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Issuance of undesignated preferred stock. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock enables our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

 

   

Choice of forum. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. In addition, our amended and restated bylaws also provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer and Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, and its telephone number is (800) 937-5449.

Exchange Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “STRO.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

General

We will issue the debt securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under an indenture to be entered into between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We have filed a copy of the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement in which this prospectus is included. The indenture will be subject to and governed by the terms of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

We may offer under this prospectus up to an aggregate principal amount of $250,000,000 in debt securities, or if debt securities are issued at a discount, or in a foreign currency, foreign currency units or composite currency, the principal amount as may be sold for an aggregate public offering price of up to $250,000,000. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will represent our direct, unsecured obligations and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured indebtedness.

We may issue the debt securities in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will describe the particular terms of each series of debt securities in a prospectus supplement relating to that series, which we will file with the SEC. The prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of debt securities being offered will specify the particular amounts, prices and terms of those debt securities. These terms may include:

 

   

the title of the series;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount, and, if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;

 

   

the issue price or prices, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount;

 

   

the date or dates on which principal is payable;

 

   

the interest rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which interest, if any, will be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable;

 

   

the place or places where principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, is payable;

 

   

the terms and conditions upon which we may, or the holders may require us to, redeem or repurchase the debt securities;

 

   

the denominations in which such debt securities may be issuable, if other than denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiple of that number;

 

   

whether the debt securities are to be issuable in the form of certificated securities (as described below) or global securities (as described below);

 

   

the portion of principal amount that will be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date if other than the principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the currency of denomination;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, will be made;

 

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if payments of principal and, if applicable, premium or interest, on the debt securities are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than the currency of denomination, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

   

if amounts of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index, then the manner in which such amounts will be determined;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for such debt securities;

 

   

any addition to or change in the covenants and/or the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture;

 

   

any events of default, if not otherwise described below under “Events of Default”;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion into or exchange for shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents; and

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to our other indebtedness.

We may issue discount debt securities that provide for an amount less than the stated principal amount to be due and payable upon acceleration of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture. We may also issue debt securities in bearer form, with or without coupons. If we issue discount debt securities or debt securities in bearer form, we will describe material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other material special considerations which apply to these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities denominated in or payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units. If we do, we will describe the restrictions, elections, and general tax considerations relating to the debt securities and the foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Debt securities offered under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement will be subordinated in right of payment to certain of our outstanding senior indebtedness. In addition, we will seek the consent of the holders of any such senior indebtedness prior to issuing any debt securities under this prospectus to the extent required by the agreements evidencing such senior indebtedness.

Registrar and Paying Agent

The debt securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange at the corporate trust office of the security registrar or at any other office or agency that we maintain for those purposes. In addition, the debt securities may be presented for payment of principal, interest and any premium at the office of the paying agent or at any office or agency that we maintain for those purposes.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

Debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock. The terms and conditions of conversion or exchange will be stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include, among others, the following:

 

   

the conversion or exchange price;

 

   

the conversion or exchange period;

 

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provisions regarding the convertibility or exchangeability of the debt securities, including who may convert or exchange;

 

   

events requiring adjustment to the conversion or exchange price;

 

   

provisions affecting conversion or exchange in the event of our redemption of the debt securities; and

 

   

any anti-dilution provisions, if applicable.

Registered Global Securities

If we decide to issue debt securities in the form of one or more global securities, then we will register the global securities in the name of the depositary for the global securities or the nominee of the depositary, and the global securities will be delivered by the trustee to the depositary for credit to the accounts of the holders of beneficial interests in the debt securities.

The prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement for debt securities of a series that are issued in global form. None of us, the trustee, any payment agent or the security registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to these beneficial ownership interests.

No Protection in the Event of Change of Control

The indenture does not have any covenants or other provisions providing for a put or increased interest or otherwise that would afford holders of our debt securities additional protection in the event of a recapitalization transaction, a change of control or a highly leveraged transaction. If we offer any covenants or provisions of this type with respect to any debt securities covered by this prospectus, we will describe them in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Covenants

Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, our debt securities will not have the benefit of any covenants that limit or restrict our business or operations, the pledging of our assets or the incurrence by us of indebtedness. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any material covenants in respect of a series of debt securities.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets

The form of indenture provides that we will not consolidate with or merge into any other person or convey, transfer, sell or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, unless:

 

   

we are the surviving person of such merger or consolidation, or if we are not the surviving person, the person formed by the consolidation or into or with which we are merged or the person to which our properties and assets are conveyed, transferred, sold or leased, is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the U.S., any state or the District of Columbia or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and has expressly assumed all of our obligations, including the payment of the principal of and, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities and the performance of the other covenants under the indenture; and

 

   

immediately before and immediately after giving effect to the transaction on a pro forma basis, no event of default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an event of default, has occurred and is continuing under the indenture.

 

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Events of Default

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following events will be events of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:

 

   

we fail to pay any principal or premium, if any, when it becomes due;

 

   

we fail to pay any interest within 30 days after it becomes due;

 

   

we fail to observe or perform any other covenant in the debt securities or the indenture for 90 days after written notice specifying the failure from the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series; and

 

   

certain events involving bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us or any of our significant subsidiaries.

The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the debt securities of any series of any default, except in payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities of a series, if the trustee considers it to be in the best interest of the holders of the debt securities of that series to do so.

If an event of default (other than an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) occurs, and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may accelerate the maturity of the debt securities. If this happens, the entire principal amount, plus the premium, if any, of all the outstanding debt securities of the affected series plus accrued interest to the date of acceleration will be immediately due and payable. At any time after the acceleration, but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind and annul such acceleration if:

 

   

all events of default (other than nonpayment of accelerated principal, premium or interest) have been cured or waived;

 

   

all lawful interest on overdue interest and overdue principal has been paid; and

 

   

the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree.

In addition, if the acceleration occurs at any time when we have outstanding indebtedness that is senior to the debt securities, the payment of the principal amount of outstanding debt securities may be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment of any amounts due under the senior indebtedness, in which case the holders of debt securities will be entitled to payment under the terms prescribed in the instruments evidencing the senior indebtedness and the indenture.

If an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occurs, the principal, premium and interest amount with respect to all of the debt securities of any series will be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or the holders of the debt securities of that series.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series will have the right to waive any existing default or compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities of that series and to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.

No holder of any debt security of a series will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

the holder gives to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

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the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series make a written request and offer reasonable indemnity to the trustee to institute a proceeding as trustee;

 

   

the trustee fails to institute a proceeding within 60 days after such request; and

 

   

the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with such request during such 60-day period.

These limitations do not, however, apply to a suit instituted for payment on debt securities of any series on or after the due dates expressed in the debt securities.

We will periodically deliver certificates to the trustee regarding our compliance with our obligations under the indenture.

Modification and Waiver

From time to time, we and the trustee may, without the consent of holders of the debt securities of one or more series, amend the indenture or the debt securities of one or more series, or supplement the indenture, for certain specified purposes, including:

 

   

to provide that the surviving entity following a change of control permitted under the indenture will assume all of our obligations under the indenture and debt securities;

 

   

to provide for certificated debt securities in addition to uncertificated debt securities;

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or make any other change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any holder; and

 

   

to appoint a successor trustee under the indenture with respect to one or more series.

From time to time we and the trustee may, with the consent of holders of at least a majority in principal amount of an outstanding series of debt securities, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities series, or waive compliance in a particular instance by us with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities. We may not, however, without the consent of each holder affected by such action, modify or supplement the indenture or the debt securities or waive compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities in order to:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement, or waiver to the indenture or such debt security;

 

   

reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest or reduce the amount of or postpone the date for payment of sinking fund or analogous obligations;

 

   

reduce the principal of or change the stated maturity of the debt securities;

 

   

make any debt security payable in money other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

change the amount or time of any payment required or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities or a redemption payment;

 

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waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt securities or change any provision with respect to redemption of debt securities; or

 

   

take any other action otherwise prohibited by the indenture to be taken without the consent of each holder affected by the action.

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

The indenture permits us, at any time, to elect to discharge our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities by following certain procedures described in the indenture. These procedures will allow us either:

 

   

to defease and be discharged from any and all of our obligations with respect to any debt securities except for the following obligations (which discharge is referred to as “legal defeasance”):

 

  1.

to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities;

 

  2.

to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;

 

  3.

to compensate and indemnify the trustee; or

 

  4.

to maintain an office or agency in respect of the debt securities and to hold monies for payment in trust; or

 

   

to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities under certain covenants contained in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be contained in the applicable supplemental indenture (which release is referred to as “covenant defeasance”).

In order to exercise either defeasance option, we must irrevocably deposit with the trustee or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose:

 

   

money;

 

   

U.S. Government Obligations (as described below) or Foreign Government Obligations (as described below) that through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money; or

 

   

a combination of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent accountants to provide money;

that, in each case specified above, provides a sufficient amount to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series, on the scheduled due dates or on a selected date of redemption in accordance with the terms of the indenture.

In addition, defeasance may be effected only if, among other things:

 

   

in the case of either legal or covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel, as specified in the indenture, stating that as a result of the defeasance neither the trust nor the trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940;

 

   

in the case of legal defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that, or there has been a change in any applicable federal income tax law with the effect that (and the opinion shall confirm that), the holders of outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such legal defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if legal defeasance had not occurred;

 

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in the case of covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if covenant defeasance had not occurred; and

 

   

certain other conditions described in the indenture are satisfied.

If we fail to comply with our remaining obligations under the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture after a covenant defeasance of the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture, and the debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any undefeased event of default, the amount of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee could be insufficient to pay amounts due under the debt securities of the affected series at the time of acceleration. We will, however, remain liable in respect of these payments.

The term “U.S. Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means securities that are direct obligations of or non-callable obligations guaranteed by the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

The term “Foreign Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, (1) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (2) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agent or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by that government, which in either case under clauses (1) or (2), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer.

Regarding the Trustee

We will identify the trustee with respect to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable debt securities. You should note that if the trustee becomes a creditor of ours, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limit the rights of the trustee to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee and its affiliates may engage in, and will be permitted to continue to engage in, other transactions with us and our affiliates. If, however, the trustee acquires any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee, in the exercise of its rights and powers, must use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to that provision, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the debt securities, unless they have offered to the trustee reasonable indemnity or security.

No Individual Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers or Directors

Each indenture provides that no incorporator and no past, present or future stockholder, officer or director of our company or any successor corporation in those capacities will have any individual liability for any of our obligations, covenants or agreements under the debt securities or such indenture.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

We may issue warrants for the purchase of our debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our debt securities, preferred stock or common stock and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.

Debt Warrants

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants to purchase debt securities will describe the terms of the debt warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the debt warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the debt warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of the debt warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the debt securities, including any conversion rights, purchasable upon exercise of the debt warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the debt warrants and any debt securities issued with them will be separately transferable;

 

   

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the debt warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the debt warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

whether the debt warrants represented by the debt warrant certificates or debt securities that may be issued upon exercise of the debt warrants will be issued in registered or bearer form;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the debt warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the debt warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the debt warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the debt warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise, and settlement of the debt warrants.

Debt warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new debt warrant certificates of different denominations. Debt warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in

 

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the prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their debt warrants, holders of debt warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the debt securities purchasable upon exercise and will not be entitled to payment of principal or any premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities purchasable upon exercise.

Equity Warrants

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase our common stock or preferred stock will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to a holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

 

   

to vote, consent, or receive dividends;

 

   

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

exercise any rights as stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. These subscription rights may be offered independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the stockholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

 

   

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

   

the exercise price payable for our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the number of subscription rights to be issued to each stockholder;

 

   

the number and terms of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities which may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

   

any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities or an over-allotment privilege to the extent the securities are fully subscribed; and

 

   

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription rights certificate, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. We urge you to read the applicable subscription rights certificate and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of some or all of the securities described above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and/or debt securities. The terms of these units will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The description of the terms of these units in the related prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable form of unit and unit agreement for complete information with respect to these units.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Fenwick & West LLP, San Francisco, California, will issue an opinion about certain legal matters with respect to the securities. Any underwriters or agents will be advised about legal matters relating to any offering by their own counsel.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Units

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

                    , 2019

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated October 4, 2019

 

 

PROSPECTUS

Up to $75,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75 million from time to time through Cowen acting as our agent.

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “STRO.” The last reported sales price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on October 3, 2019 was $8.23 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cowen is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation to Cowen for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties referenced under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 5 of this prospectus as well as those contained in any accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement we prepare or authorize in connection with this offering, and in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the accompanying prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Cowen

The date of this prospectus is                 , 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

    1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

    2  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

    3  

THE OFFERING

    4  

RISK FACTORS

    5  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

    8  

DIVIDEND POLICY

    9  

DILUTION

    10  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

    11  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

    16  

LEGAL MATTERS

    18  

EXPERTS

    18  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000. Under this prospectus, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. The $75,000,000 of shares of our common stock that may be sold under this prospectus are included in the $250,000,000 of shares of common stock that may be sold under the registration statement.

This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus to which we have referred you. Neither we nor Cowen take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. We are not, and Cowen is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

When we refer to “Sutro,” “we,” “our,” “us,” the “Registrant,” the “Company” and “our company” in this prospectus, we mean Sutro Biopharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation, unless otherwise specified.

“Sutro” and all product candidate names are our common law trademarks. This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus appear without the ® and symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

Our web site address is http://www.sutrobio.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and does not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above, or at our principal executive offices, 310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150, South San Francisco, California 94080, during normal business hours.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. A Current Report (or portion thereof) furnished, but not filed, on Form 8-K shall not be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of any offering of securities made by this prospectus:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on April  1, 2019, including certain information incorporated by reference therein from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders, filed with the SEC on April 26, 2019;

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on May  15, 2019 and August 14, 2019, respectively;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on May 7, 2019, June 10, 2019 and June  24, 2019; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on September 18, 2018 under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of such documents that has been incorporated herein by reference (other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus incorporates). Written or oral requests for copies should be directed to Sutro Biopharma, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, 310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (650) 392-8412.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

Our Company

We are a clinical stage drug discovery, development and manufacturing company focused on deploying our proprietary integrated cell-free protein synthesis platform, XpressCF, to create a broad variety of optimally designed, next-generation protein therapeutics initially for cancer and autoimmune disorders. We aim to design therapeutics using the most relevant and potent modalities, including cytokine-based targets, immuno-oncology, or I/O agents, antibody-drug conjugates, or ADCs, and bispecific antibodies that are directed primarily against clinically validated targets where the current standard of care is suboptimal. We believe our platform allows us to accelerate the discovery and development of potential first-in-class and best-in-class molecules by enabling the rapid and systematic evaluation of protein structure-activity relationships to create optimized homogeneous product candidates. Our mission is to transform the lives of patients by using our XpressCF Platform to create medicines with improved therapeutic profiles for areas of unmet need.

Our two most advanced product candidates are wholly owned: STRO-001, an ADC directed against CD74, for patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or NHL, and STRO-002, an ADC directed against folate receptor-alpha, or FolRa, for patients with ovarian and endometrial cancers.

We have also entered into multi-target, product-focused collaborations with leaders in the field of oncology, including a cytokine derivatives collaboration with Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, or Merck, a B Cell Maturation Antigen, or BCMA, with a BCMA ADC now in phase 1 clinical evaluation, and an immuno-oncology directed alliance with Celgene Corporation, or Celgene, and an oncology-focused collaboration with Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany (operating in the United States and Canada under the name “EMD Serono”), in which an undisclosed novel bispecific solid tumor-targeting ADC has been recently nominated as a development candidate.

Company Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in April 2003 under the name Fundamental Applied Biology, Inc. We subsequently changed our name to Sutro Biopharma, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (650) 392-8412. Our website address is http://www.sutrobio.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

Up to 32,040,204 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 9,113,001 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $8.23 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common shares on The Nasdaq Global Market on October 3, 2019. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

 

Manner of offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen and Company, LLC. See “Plan of Distribution.”

 

Use of proceeds

We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include funding research, clinical and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See the disclosure under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

The Nasdaq Global Market symbol

“STRO”

The number of shares of our common stock shown above to be outstanding after this offering is based on 22,927,203 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2019, and excludes:

 

   

3,903,653 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2019 with a weighted average exercise price of $13.02 per share;

 

   

458,190 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of restricted stock units as of June 30, 2019.

 

   

3,106,593 shares of common stock reserved and available for future issuance as of June 30, 2019, under our equity incentives plans, consisting of (1) 2,717,022 shares of common stock reserved and available for issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan as of June 30, 2019, and (3) 389,571 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of June 30, 2019; and

 

   

71,813 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants as of June 30, 2019, with a weighted average exercise price of $10.86 per share.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors described below and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2019, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any amendment or update thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, including in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

Risks Relating to this Offering

If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to you.

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 9,113,001 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $8.23 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on October 3, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $75.0 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, new investors in this offering will incur immediate dilution of $2.24 per share. For a more detailed discussion of the foregoing, see the section entitled “Dilution” below. To the extent outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors. In addition, to the extent we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered in this offering.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund research, clinical and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Cowen at any time throughout the term of the sales

 

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agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Cowen after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common shares during the sales period and limits we set with Cowen. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings”, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and documents incorporated herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties. We caution readers that any forward-looking statement is not a guarantee of future performance and that actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statement. These statements are based on current expectations of future events.

Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding expectations and intentions, costs and expenses, outcome of contingencies, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, cost savings, objectives of management, debt financing, our future results of operations and financial position, business strategies, market size, potential growth opportunities, clinical development activities, efficacy and safety profile of our product candidates, timing and results of our nonclinical studies and clinical trials, the receipt and timing of potential regulatory designations, our ability to maintain and recognize the benefits of certain designations received by product candidates, the achievement of clinical and commercial milestones, the advancement of our technologies and our proprietary product candidates, the successful achievement of the goals of our collaborations, the advancement of the product candidates that are the subjects of these collaborations, the approvals and commercialization of product candidates and other statements that are not historical facts. You can find many of these statements by looking for words like “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “may,” “might,” “should,” “will,” “could,” “plan,” “intend,” “project,” “seek” or similar expressions in this prospectus, in documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any free writing prospectus. We intend that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe harbors created thereby.

These forward-looking statements are based on the current beliefs and expectations of our management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. If underlying assumptions prove inaccurate or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from current expectations and projections. Factors that might cause such a difference include those discussed in Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2019, as well as those discussed in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or, in the case of documents referred to or incorporated by reference, the date of those documents.

All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable U.S. securities law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $75,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with Cowen as a source of financing.

We currently intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus primarily to fund research, clinical and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. Additionally, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to expand our current business by in-licensing or acquiring, as the case may be, commercial products, product candidates, technologies, compounds, other assets or complementary businesses, using cash or shares of our common stock. However, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so.

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors the board of directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any future financing instruments.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value of our common stock as of June 30, 2019 was approximately $119.6 million, or approximately $5.21 per share of common stock based upon 22,927,203 shares outstanding. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2019.

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $75,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $8.23 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on October 3, 2019, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 would have been $192.0 million, or $5.99 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.78 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $2.24 per share to new investors in this offering.

The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as-adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The as-adjusted information assumes that all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $75,000,000 is sold at the assumed offering price of $8.23 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on October 3, 2019. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

Assumed public offering price per share

     $ 8.23  

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2019

  $ 5.21     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to the offering

    0.78     
 

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the offering

       5.99  
    

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors participating in the offering

     $ 2.24  
    

 

 

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 22,927,203 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2019. The number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2019 excludes:

 

   

3,903,653 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2019 with a weighted average exercise price of $13.02 per share;

 

   

458,190 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of restricted stock units as of June 30, 2019.

 

   

3,106,593 shares of common stock reserved and available for future issuance as of June 30, 2019, under our equity incentives plans, consisting of (1) 2,717,022 shares of common stock reserved and available for issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan as of June 30, 2019, and (3) 389,571 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of June 30, 2019; and

 

   

71,813 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants as of June 30, 2019, with a weighted average exercise price of $10.86 per share.

The foregoing table does not give effect to the exercise of any outstanding options or warrants. To the extent options and warrants are exercised, there may be further dilution to new investors.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all the information that may be important to you. For a complete description, you should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.

As of September 30, 2019, there were 23,090,002 shares of our common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

Common Stock

Dividend rights

Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine. For more information about our dividend policy, see “Dividend Policy” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Voting rights

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our restated certificate of incorporation, which means that holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock are able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation establishes a classified board of directors, divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.

No preemptive or similar rights

Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.

Right to receive liquidation distributions

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors can also increase or decrease the number of shares

 

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of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Warrants

As of June 30, 2019, we had outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 71,813 shares of our common stock at a weighted average exercise price of $10.86 per share.

Registration Rights

Pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, certain of our stockholders are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act, as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities.

Demand registration rights

The holders of at least a majority of the then-outstanding registrable securities may make a written request to us for the registration under the Securities Act of registrable securities representing at least a majority of the then outstanding registrable securities held by such holders. Promptly following such request, we are obligated to provide written notice of such request to all stockholders to file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering all registrable securities that the initiating holders requested to be registered and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders. We are only required to file two registration statements that are declared effective upon exercise of these demand registration rights. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 90 days, if within 30 days after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be seriously detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to be effected at such time.

Form S-3 registration rights

Any holder of then-outstanding registrable securities can request that we register all or part of their shares on Form S-3 if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the aggregate price to the public of the shares offered is at least $3.0 million. The stockholders may only require us to effect two registration statements on Form S-3 in a 12-month period. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing twice during any 12-month period for a total cumulative period of not more than 120 days if our board of directors determines in its good faith judgment that the filing would be seriously detrimental to us and our stockholders.

Piggyback registration rights

If we register any of our securities for public sale, holders of then-outstanding registrable securities or their permitted transferees will have the right to include their registrable securities in the registration statement. However, this right does not apply to a registration described under “—Demand registration rights” above, a registration relating to employee benefit plans or a registration relating to a corporate reorganization. The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned pro rata among these holders,

 

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according to the total number of registrable securities originally requested by such holders to be included in the registration statement. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced below 40% of the registrable securities such holders requested to be included in such offering.

Expenses of registration rights

We generally will pay all expenses related to the registrations, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

Expiration of registration rights

The registration rights described above will expire, with respect to any particular holder of these rights, on the earlier of a deemed liquidation event, as defined in our restated certificate of incorporation, and such time after this offering as the registrable securities held by such holder may be sold within any ninety day period without restriction pursuant to Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

The provisions of Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions, which are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Delaware Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

 

   

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, (i) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66.67% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction or series of transactions together resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three

 

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years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock. We expect the existence of this provision to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions our board of directors does not approve in advance. We also anticipate that Section 203 may also discourage attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock held by stockholders.

Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaw Provisions

Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our company, including the following:

 

   

Board of Directors vacancies.    Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors but promotes continuity of management.

 

   

Classified board.    Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

 

   

Stockholder action; special meetings of stockholders.    Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our restated bylaws. Further, our restated bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairperson of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.

 

   

Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations.    Our restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

 

   

No cumulative voting.    The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.

 

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Directors removed only for cause.    Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

 

   

Amendment of charter provisions.    Any amendment of the above provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation requires approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

 

   

Issuance of undesignated preferred stock.    Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock enables our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

 

   

Choice of forum.    Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. In addition, our amended and restated bylaws also provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer and Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, and its telephone number is (800) 937-5449.

Exchange Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “STRO.”

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may offer and sell from time to time up to an aggregate of $75,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made into The Nasdaq Global Market or any other existing trading market for our common stock. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.

Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.

The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3.0% of the aggregate gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen up to $50,000 of Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering, and for certain other expenses, including Cowen’s FINRA counsel fees in an amount up to $10,000. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions and reimbursements payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $260,000.

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on The Nasdaq Global Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilizes our common stock.

 

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Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market and trades under the symbol “STRO.” The transfer agent of our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Fenwick & West LLP, San Francisco, California, will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Sutro Biopharma, Inc. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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Up to $75,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Cowen

                    , 2019

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered:

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 32,450  

FINRA filing fee

     38,000  

Printing and engraving*

     *  

Legal fees and expenses*

     *  

Accounting fees and expenses*

     *  

Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses*

     *  

Miscellaneous expenses*

     *  
  

 

 

 

Total*

   $ *  
  

 

 

 

 

*

These fees are calculated based on the type of securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Officers and Directors

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers under certain circumstances and subject to certain limitations. The terms of Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law are sufficiently broad to permit indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement of expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that eliminate the personal liability of its directors for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except liability for the following:

 

   

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Registrant or its stockholders;

 

   

acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (regarding unlawful dividends or stock purchases); or

 

   

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s restated bylaws provide that:

 

   

the Registrant is required to indemnify its directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions;

 

   

the Registrant may indemnify its other employees and agents as set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law;

 

   

the Registrant is required to advance expenses, as incurred, to its directors and executive officers in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions; and

 

   

the rights conferred in the restated bylaws are not exclusive.

 

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The Registrant has entered, and intends to continue to enter, into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and executive officers to provide these directors and executive officers additional contractual assurances regarding the scope of the indemnification set forth in the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws and to provide additional procedural protections. At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or executive officer of the Registrant for which indemnification is sought. The indemnification provisions in the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws and the indemnification agreements entered into or to be entered into between the Registrant and each of its directors and executive officers may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the Registrant’s directors and executive officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

The Registrant currently carries liability insurance for its directors and officers.

Item 16. Exhibits

The exhibits listed below are filed (except where otherwise indicated) as part of this Registration Statement.

 

Exhibit
Number

       

Incorporated by Reference

 
  

Exhibit Description

  

Form

    

File No.

    

Exhibit

   

Filing Date

    

Filed
Herewith

 
  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement              
  1.2    Sales Agreement, dated October 4, 2019, by and between the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC                 X  
  3.1    Restated Certificate of Incorporation      S-1/A        333-227103        3.2       9/17/2018     
  3.2    Restated Bylaws      S-1/A        333-227103        3.4       9/17/2018     
  4.1    Form of Common Stock Certificate      S-1        333-227103        4.1       8/29/2018     
  4.2    Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement, dated May  24, 2018, by and among the Registrant and certain of its stockholders, as amended      S-1        333-227103        4.2 (A)      8/29/2018     
  4.3    Form of Debt Security                 X  
  4.4    Form of Indenture                 X  
  4.5*    Form of Warrant              
  4.6*    Form of Warrant Agreement              
  4.7*    Form of Preferred Stock Certificate              
  4.8*    Form of Subscription Rights Certificate              
  4.9*    Form of Unit              
  4.10*    Form of Unit Agreement              
  5.1    Opinion of Fenwick & West LLP                 X  
23.1    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP                 X  
23.2    Consent of Fenwick & West LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)                 X  
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature page hereto)                 X  

 

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Table of Contents

Exhibit
Number

       

Incorporated by Reference

 
  

Exhibit Description

  

Form

    

File No.

    

Exhibit

    

Filing Date

    

Filed
Herewith

 
25.1**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.               
25.2**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.               

 

*

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and incorporated herein by reference.

**

To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.

Item 17. Undertakings

(a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that subparagraphs (i), (ii), and (iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

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(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

(iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

(iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers, and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer, or controlling person of the Registrant in the

 

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successful defense of any action, suit, or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(d) If and when applicable, the Registrant hereby further undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of South San Francisco, State of California, on October 4, 2019.

 

SUTRO BIOPHARMA, INC.
By:  

 /s/ William J. Newell

   William J. Newell
   Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints William J. Newell and Edward C. Albini, and each of them, as his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, each with full power of substitution, for him in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement (including post-effective amendments or any abbreviated registration statement and any amendments thereto filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) increasing the number of securities for which registration is sought), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ William J. Newell

William J. Newell

  

Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  October 4, 2019

/s/ Edward C. Albini

Edward C. Albini

  

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Accounting Officer and

Principal Financial Officer)

  October 4, 2019

/s/ Connie Matsui

Connie Matsui

   Chair of the Board of Directors   October 4, 2019

/s/ Michael Dybbs, Ph.D.

Michael Dybbs, Ph.D..

   Director   October 4, 2019

/s/ John G. Freund, M.D.

John G. Freund, M.D.

   Director   October 4, 2019

/s/ Joseph M. Lobacki

Joseph M. Lobacki

   Director   October 4, 2019

 

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Table of Contents

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Daniel H. Petree

Daniel H. Petree

   Director   October 4, 2019

/s/ Shalini Sharp

Shalini Sharp

   Director   October 4, 2019

 

II-7

EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

SUTRO BIOPHARMA, INC.

$75,000,000

COMMON STOCK

SALES AGREEMENT

October 4, 2019

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Sutro Biopharma, Inc. (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

1. Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through or to Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) being filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Common Stock.

The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “ATM Prospectus) included as part of such registration statement. The Company has furnished to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, together with the ATM Prospectus, relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, as amended when it becomes effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any


information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, together with the ATM Prospectus, in the form in which such ATM Prospectus has most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system (“EDGAR”).

2. Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason, in its sole discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

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3. Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in such Placement Notice, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made through Nasdaq or on or through any other existing trading market for the Common Stock. Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

4. Suspension of Sales.

(a) The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and Cowen agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and (iii) Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

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(c) If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Placement Shares under this Agreement.

(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

5. Settlement.

(a) Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

(b) Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least two Trading Days prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by Cowen to timely provide instructions for delivery), the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

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6. Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that as of the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)), each date on which a Placement Notice is given, and any date on which Placement Shares are sold hereunder:

(a) Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been or will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information related to the Registration Statement or Prospectus. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements or General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

(b) No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and, as of each Applicable Time, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Applicable Time, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each Applicable Time, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Cowen furnished to the Company in writing by Cowen expressly for use therein. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required.

(c) Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested. For avoidance of doubt, the Company’s compliance with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act shall be deemed to satisfy this Section 6(c).

(d) Emerging Growth Company. The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company ceasing to be an emerging growth company.

 

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(e) Not an Ineligible Issuer. The Company currently is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 of the rules and regulation of the Commission. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”

(f) Distribution of Offering Material By the Company. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.

(g) The Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.

(h) The Placement Shares. The Placement Shares to be issued and sold by the Company hereunder have been duly and validly authorized and, when issued and delivered against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid, non-assessable and free and clear of any preemptive or other similar rights, and will conform to the description thereof in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and the issuance of the Placement Shares is not subject to any preemptive or similar rights.

(i) No Registration Rights. No person or entity has the right to require registration of shares of Common Stock or other securities of the Company because of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or otherwise, except for persons and entities who have expressly waived such right in writing or who have been given timely and proper written notice and have failed to exercise such right within the time or times required under the terms and conditions of such right.

(j) No Material Adverse Change. The Company has not sustained, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included in the Prospectus, (i) any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or action, order or decree of any court or governmental or regulatory authority, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus; (ii) any change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise or vesting of equity awards and warrants described as outstanding in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) or long-term debt of the Company, or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock, or any material adverse changes, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, assets, general affairs, management, financial position, prospects, stockholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus.

(k) Independent Accountants. Ernst & Young LLP, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company incorporated by reference as a part of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company within the meaning of Article 2-01 of Regulation S-X and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (the “PCAOB”).

 

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(l) Financial Statements. The financial statements, together with the related notes, included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly present the financial position and the results of operations and changes in financial position of the Company at the respective dates or for the respective periods therein specified. Such statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved except as may be set forth in the related notes thereto and provided, that unaudited interim financial statements, which are subject to normal year-end adjustments, may not contain certain footnotes, as permitted by the rules of the Commission. The financial statements, together with the related notes, included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with Regulation S-X. No other financial statements or supporting schedules or exhibits are required by Regulation S-X to be described or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus. The selected financial data included in the Prospectus and the Registration Statement, as applicable, fairly presents in all material respects the information shown therein as at the respective dates and for the respective periods specified and are derived from the consolidated financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and other financial information. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(m) Organization and Good Standing. The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of Delaware. The Company is duly qualified to do business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation in each jurisdiction in which its ownership or lease of property or the conduct of its business requires such qualification and has all power and authority (corporate or other) necessary to own or hold its properties and to conduct the business in which it is engaged, except where the failure to so qualify or have such power or authority would not (i) reasonably be likely to have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company, or (ii) impair in any material respect the ability of the Company to issue and sell the Placement Shares under this Agreement (any such effect as described in clauses (i) or (ii), a “Material Adverse Effect”). Except as otherwise disclosed to Cowen, the Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than any subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21 to the most recent annual report on Form 10-K filed by the Company and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(n) Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Prospectus, and all of the issued shares of capital stock of the Company, have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid, non-assessable and free and clear of any preemptive or other similar rights, have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws, and conform to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. All of the Company’s options, warrants and other rights to purchase or exchange any securities for shares of the Company’s

 

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capital stock have been duly authorized and validly issued and were issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws other than those which have been waived or satisfied. None of the outstanding shares of Common Stock was issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. As of the date set forth in the Prospectus, there were no authorized or outstanding shares of capital stock, options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company or any of its subsidiaries other than those described above or accurately described in the Prospectus. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, since such date, the Company has not issued any securities other than Common Stock issued pursuant to the exercise of warrants or upon the exercise or vesting of stock options or other awards outstanding under the Company’s equity incentive plans, options or other securities granted or issued pursuant to the Company’s existing equity compensation plans or other plans, and the issuance of Common Stock pursuant to employee stock purchase plans. The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, as described in the Prospectus, accurately and fairly present in all material respects the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.

(o) No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the issue and sale of the Placement Shares by the Company and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby will not (with or without notice or lapse of time or both) (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, constitute a default or a Debt Repayment Triggering Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, encumbrance, security interest, claim or charge upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws (or analogous governing instruments, as applicable) of the Company or (iii) result in the violation of any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any court or governmental or regulatory agency or body, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of their properties or assets except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not have a Material Adverse Effect. A “Debt Repayment Triggering Event” means any event or condition that gives, or with the giving of notice or lapse of time would give the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company.

(p) No Material Actions or Proceedings. There is no legal or governmental proceeding to which the Company is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company is the subject, including any proceeding before the United States Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“FDA”) or comparable federal, state, local or foreign governmental bodies (it being understood that the interaction between the Company and the FDA and such comparable governmental bodies relating to the clinical development and product approval process shall not be deemed proceedings for purposes of this representation), which is required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus

 

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and is not described therein, or which, singularly or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company, could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and no such proceedings are threatened or, to the Company’s knowledge, contemplated by governmental or regulatory authorities or threatened by others. The Company is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, orders and decrees governing its business as prescribed by the FDA, or any other federal, state or foreign agencies or bodies engaged in the regulation of pharmaceuticals or biohazardous substances or materials, except where noncompliance would not, singly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. All preclinical studies and clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company to support approval for commercialization of the Company’s products have been conducted by the Company, or to the Company’s knowledge by third parties, in compliance with all applicable federal, state or foreign laws, rules, orders and regulations, except for such failure or failures to be in compliance as could not reasonably be expected to have, singly or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

(q) No Consents Required. Except for the registration of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and applicable state securities laws, and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Placement Shares, no consent, approval, authorization or order of, or filing, qualification or registration (each an “Authorization”) with, any court, governmental or regulatory agency or body, foreign or domestic, which has not been made, obtained or taken and is not in full force and effect, is required for the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby; and no event has occurred that allows or results in, or after notice or lapse of time or both would allow or result in, revocation, suspension, termination or invalidation of any such Authorization or any other impairment of the rights of the holder or maker of any such Authorization. All corporate approvals (including those of stockholders) necessary for the Company to consummate the transactions contemplated by this Agreement have been obtained and are in effect.

(r) No Violation or Default. The Company is not (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws (or analogous governing instrument, as applicable), (ii) in default in any respect, and no event has occurred which, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, lease or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it is bound or to which any of its property or assets is subject or (iii) in violation of any law, ordinance, governmental rule, regulation or court order, decree or judgment to which it or its property or assets may be subject (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(s) Licenses or Permits. The Company possesses all licenses, certificates, authorizations and permits issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate local, state, federal or foreign governmental or regulatory agencies or bodies (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, the “Governmental Permits”) except where any failures to possess or make the same would not, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company is in compliance with all such Governmental Permits except where any noncompliance would not have a Material Adverse Effect; all such Governmental Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where the invalidity or failure to be in full force and effect would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not received notification of any revocation, modification, suspension, termination or invalidation (or proceedings related thereto) of any such Governmental Permit and the Company has no reason to believe that any such Governmental Permit will not be renewed.

(t) Taxes. The Company (i) has timely filed all necessary federal, state, local and foreign tax returns (or filed timely extensions with respect to such returns), and all such returns were true, complete and correct in all material respects, (ii) has paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes, for which it is liable, including, without limitation, all sales and use taxes and all taxes which the Company is obligated to withhold from amounts owing to employees, creditors and third parties, other than such amounts being disputed in good faith and for which appropriate reserves, if required, have been established, and (iii) does not have any tax deficiency or claims outstanding or assessed or, to its knowledge, proposed against any of them, except those, in each of the cases described in clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) above, that would not reasonably be expected to, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(u) Company Not an “Investment Company”. The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering of the Placement Shares and the application of the Net Proceeds, will not be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

(v) Insurance. The Company carries, or is covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company reasonably believes is adequate for the conduct of its business and the value of its properties. The Company has no reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not received written notice from any insurer, agent of such insurer or the broker of the Company that any material capital improvements or any other material expenditures (other than premium payments) are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance.

(w) No Stabilization. Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its officers, directors or affiliates has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, without giving effect to activities by Cowen, any action designed or intended to stabilize or manipulate the price of any security of the Company, or which caused or resulted in, or which might in the future reasonably be expected to cause or result in, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company.

 

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(x) No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders (or analogous interest holders), customers or suppliers of the Company or any of its affiliates on the other hand, which is required to be described by the Securities Act in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and which is not so described.

(y) Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(z) No Unlawful Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its directors or officers nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee thereof, or any agent, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company, has (i) used any corporate funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses relating to political activity, (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees, political parties or campaigns, political party officials, or candidates for political office from corporate funds, (iii) violated any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any other applicable anti-corruption laws, or (iv) made any other unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback, or other unlawful payment.

(aa) Compliance with Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company conducts business and the applicable rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened.

(bb) Compliance with OFAC.

 

  (A)

Neither the Company nor any of its directors or officers nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee agent, affiliate, representative or other person acting on behalf of the Company, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is: (i) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”), the European Union (“EU”), Her Majesty’s Treasury (“HMT”), or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor (ii) located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of a U.S. government embargo (including, without limitation, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria and the Crimea).

 

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  (B)

The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the Net Proceeds, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such Net Proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person: (i) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions, or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of a U.S. government embargo; or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including Cowen).

 

  (C)

For the past five (5) years, the Company has not knowingly engaged in and is not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any Person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions or any country or territory that, at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of a U.S. government embargo.

(cc) Company’s Accounting System. The Company maintains a system of “internal control over financial reporting” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the General Rules and Regulations under the Exchange Act (the “Exchange Act Rules”)) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and has been designed by its principal executive and principal financial officers, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurances that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. Except as described in the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (A) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (B) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(dd) Disclosure Controls. The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act Rules) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act; such disclosure controls and procedures have been reasonably designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer.

(ee) Environmental Laws and Hazardous Materials. The Company is in compliance in all material respects with all foreign, federal, state and local rules, laws and regulations relating to the use, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances or waste and protection of health and safety or the environment which are applicable to its business (“Environmental Laws”). There has been no storage, generation, transportation, handling, treatment, disposal, discharge, emission, or other release of any kind of toxic or other wastes or

 

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other hazardous substances by, due to, or caused by the Company (or, to the Company’s knowledge, any other entity for whose acts or omissions the Company is or may otherwise be liable) upon any of the property now or previously owned or leased by the Company, or upon any other property, in violation of any law, statute, ordinance, rule, regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit or which would, under any law, statute, ordinance, rule (including rule of common law), regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit, give rise to any liability that reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and, to the Company’s knowledge, there has been no disposal, discharge, emission or other release of any kind onto such property or into the environment surrounding such property of any toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances.

(ff) Intellectual Property. The Company owns or possesses, or, to the knowledge of the Company, can acquire on reasonable terms, all patents, patent rights, licenses, inventions, copyrights, know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures), trademarks, service marks, trade names or other intellectual property (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary to carry on the business as now operated by it, and as proposed to be operated in the future (including upon the commercialization of products or services described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as under development), and the conduct of its business does not and will not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise conflict in any material respect with any such rights of others. The Intellectual Property of the Company has not been adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such adjudication. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company has not received any notice of any claim, and is not otherwise aware, of any infringement, misappropriation, or conflict with any intellectual property rights of another and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such notice or claim. The Company has not received any notice of any claim, and is not otherwise aware, of any facts or circumstances which would render any Intellectual Property of the Company invalid or inadequate to protect the interest of the Company, in each case that would cause a Material Adverse Effect. To the Company’s knowledge: (i) there are no third parties who have rights to any Intellectual Property of the Company, except for customary reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Intellectual Property that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as owned by or licensed to the Company; and (ii) there is no infringement by third parties of any such Intellectual Property owned by or licensed to the Company. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others: (A) challenging the Company’s rights in or to any Intellectual Property of the Company, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property of the Company, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; or (C) asserting that the Company infringes, misappropriates, or otherwise violates, or would, upon the commercialization of any product or service described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development, infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate, any Intellectual Property rights of another, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim. The Company has complied in all material respects with the terms of each agreement pursuant to

 

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which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. To the Company’s knowledge, there are no material defects in any of the patents or patent applications included in the Intellectual Property disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as owned by or licensed to the Company. The Company has taken all reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard its Intellectual Property, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure, confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements and invention assignments with its employees, and no employee of the Company is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement, or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company, except as such violation would not result in a Material Adverse Effect. The duty of candor and good faith as required by the United States Patent and Trademark Office during the prosecution of the United States patents and patent applications included in the Intellectual Property owned by or licensed to the Company has been complied with; and in all foreign offices having similar requirements, all such requirements have been complied with. To the Company’s knowledge, none of the Company owned Intellectual Property or technology (including information technology and outsourced arrangements) employed by the Company has been obtained or is being used by the Company in violation of any contractual obligation binding on the Company or any of its respective officers, directors or employees or otherwise in violation of the rights of any persons. The product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development by the Company fall within the scope of the claims of one or more patents or patent applications owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company. The consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement will not result in the loss or impairment of or payment of any additional amounts with respect to, nor require the consent of any other person in respect of, the Company’s right to own, use, or hold for use any of the Intellectual Property Rights as owned, used or held for use in the conduct of the business as currently conducted. With respect to the use of the software in the Company’s business as it is currently conducted, the Company has not experienced any material defects in such software including any material error or omission in the processing of any transactions other than defects which have been corrected, and to the Company’s knowledge, no such software contains any device or feature designed to disrupt, disable, or otherwise impair the functioning of any software or is subject to the terms of any “open source” or other similar license that provides for the source code of the software to be publicly distributed or dedicated to the public. The Company has at all times complied in all material respects with all applicable laws relating to privacy, data protection, and the collection and use of personal information collected, used, or held for use by the Company in the conduct of the Company’s business. To the Company’s knowledge, no claims have been asserted or threatened against the Company alleging a violation of any person’s privacy or personal information or data rights and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby will not breach or otherwise cause any violation of any law related to privacy, data protection, or the collection and use of personal information collected, used, or held for use by the Company in the conduct of the Company’s business, except where any such breach or violation would not result in a Material Adverse Effect. The Company takes reasonable measures to ensure that such information is protected against unauthorized access, use, modification, or other misuse. The Company has taken all necessary actions to obtain ownership of all works of authorship and inventions made by its employees, consultants and contractors during the time they were employed by or under contract with the Company and which are material to the Company’s business. All founders and key employees have signed confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with the Company.

 

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(gg) Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.

(hh) No Broker’s Fees. Except for this Agreement, the Company is not a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or Cowen for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares or any transaction contemplated by this Agreement, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

(ii) Loans. There are no outstanding loans, advances (except normal advances for business expenses in the ordinary course of business) or guarantees of indebtedness by the Company to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any of their respective family members.

(jj) No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

(kk) Cybersecurity; Data Protection. Except as could not be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company’s information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company as currently conducted, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. Except as could not be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company has implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect its material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Personal Data”)) used in connection with its business, and except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. Except as could not be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company is presently in compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification.

 

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(ll) Preclinical Studies and Clinical Trials. The preclinical studies or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company that are described in the Prospectus (the “Company Studies and Trials”) were and, if still pending, are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols submitted to the FDA and any comparable foreign regulatory authority; the descriptions of the results of the Company Studies and Trials contained in the Prospectus are accurate in all material respects; the Company has no knowledge of any other studies or trials not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or call in question the results described or referred to in the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any written notices or correspondence with the FDA or any foreign, state or local governmental body exercising comparable authority, requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any Company Studies or Trials that termination, suspension or material modification would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same. The Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in the Company Studies and Trials. In using or disclosing patient information received by the Company in connection with the Company Studies and Trials, the Company has complied in all material respects with all applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including, without limitation, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) and the rules and regulations thereunder. To the Company’s knowledge, none of the Company Studies and Trials involved any investigator who has been disqualified as a clinical investigator or debarred by the FDA. To the Company’s knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules, and regulations of the FDA and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which the Company is subject.

(mm) Regulatory Matters. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its subsidiaries, and its and their respective directors, officers and employees, and, to the Company’s knowledge, its and their respective agents, affiliates and representatives, are, and at all times: (i) have operated and currently operate its business in compliance in all material respects with applicable provisions of the Health Care Laws (as defined below) of the FDA, the Department of Health and Human Services and any comparable foreign or other regulatory authority to which they are subject (collectively, the “Applicable Regulatory Authorities”) applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any of the Company’s product candidates or any product manufactured or distributed by the Company; (ii) has not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting non-compliance with (A) any Health Care Laws or (B) or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Health Care Laws (“Regulatory Authorizations”); (iii) possesses all Regulatory Authorizations required to conduct its business as currently conducted and such Regulatory Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries are in violation, in any material respect, of any term of any such Regulatory Authorizations; (iv) has not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities alleging that any product operation or activity is in material

 

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violation of any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that the Applicable Regulatory Authorities is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (v) has not received notice that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any material Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities is considering such action; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were materially complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); (vii) is not a party to or have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by any Applicable Regulatory Authority; and (viii) has not been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any government health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion. The term “Health Care Laws” means Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395-1395hhh (the Medicare statute); Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396-1396v (the Medicaid statute); the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b); the civil False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.; the criminal False Claims Act 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(a); any criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287 and the health care fraud criminal provisions under HIPAA, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq.; the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320a-7a; the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h; the exclusion law, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7; HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.; the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.; the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 201 et seq.; the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws; and any similar federal, state and local laws and regulations.

(nn) Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company has good and marketable title in fee simple (in the case of real property) to, or have valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real or personal property (provided that, for the avoidance of doubt, rights to Intellectual Property rights are addressed exclusively in Section 6(ff) above) which are material to the business of the Company, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, security interests, claims and defects that (i) do not, singularly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or (ii) could not reasonably be expected, singularly or in the aggregate to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(oo) No Labor Dispute. There is (A) no significant unfair labor practice complaint pending against the Company, nor to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against it, before the National Labor Relations Board, any state or local labor relation board or any foreign labor relations board, and no significant grievance or significant arbitration proceeding arising out of or under any collective bargaining agreement is so pending against the Company, or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against it and (B) no labor disturbance by or dispute with,

 

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employees of the Company exists or, to the Company’s knowledge, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, that could reasonably be expected, singularly or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company is not aware that any key employee or significant group of employees of the Company plans to terminate employment with the Company.

(pp) Compliance with ERISA. No “prohibited transaction” (as defined in Section 406 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, including the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (“ERISA”), or Section 4975 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time (the “Code”)) or “accumulated funding deficiency” (as defined in Section 302 of ERISA) or any of the events set forth in Section 4043(b) of ERISA (other than events with respect to which the thirty (30)-day notice requirement under Section 4043 of ERISA has been waived) has occurred or could reasonably be expected to occur with respect to any employee benefit plan of the Company which could, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Each employee benefit plan of the Company is in compliance in all material respects with applicable law, including ERISA and the Code. The Company have not incurred and could not reasonably be expected to incur material liability under Title IV of ERISA with respect to the termination of, or withdrawal from, any pension plan (as defined in ERISA). Each pension plan for which the Company or any of its subsidiaries would have any liability that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and to the Company’s knowledge, nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which could, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to cause the loss of such qualification.

(qq) Minute Books. The minute books of the Company have been made available to Cowen and counsel for Cowen, and such books (i) contain a complete summary of all meetings and actions of the board of directors (including each board committee) and stockholders of the Company (or analogous governing bodies and interest holders, as applicable), since the time of its respective incorporation or organization through the date of the latest meeting and action, and (ii) accurately in all material respects reflect all transactions referred to in such minutes.

(rr) Margin Rules. The application of the proceeds received by the Company from the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares as described in the Prospectus will not violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve system or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

(ss) PFIC. The Company is not a Passive Foreign Investment Company (“PFIC”) within the meaning of Section 1296 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1966, and the Company is not likely to become a PFIC.

(tt) Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

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(uu) Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company is in compliance in all material respects with applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) that are then in effect.

(vv) Statistical and Market Data. The statistical and market related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate, and such data agree with the sources from which they are derived.

(ww) Compliance with Occupational Laws. The Company (A) is in compliance, in all material respects, with applicable federal and state laws, rules, regulations, treaties, statutes and codes promulgated by governmental authorities (including pursuant to the Occupational Health and Safety Act) relating to the protection of human health and safety in the workplace (“Occupational Laws”); (B) has received all material permits, licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Occupational Laws to conduct its business as currently conducted; and (C) is in compliance, in all material respects, with all terms and conditions of such permit, license or approval. No action, proceeding, revocation proceeding, writ, injunction or claim is pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against the Company relating to Occupational Laws.

(xx) No Shutdowns or Prohibitions. The Company has not had any product, clinical laboratory or manufacturing site (whether Company-owned or that of a third party manufacturer for the Company’s products) subject to a governmental authority (including FDA) shutdown or import or export prohibition, nor received any FDA Form 483 or other governmental authority notice of inspectional observations, “warning letters,” “untitled letters,” requests to make changes to the Company’s products, processes or operations, or similar correspondence or notice from the FDA or other governmental authority alleging or asserting material noncompliance with any applicable Health Care Laws. To the Company’s knowledge, neither the FDA nor any other governmental authority is considering such action.

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

7. Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

(a) Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments not related to the Placement Shares, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to

 

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the Prospectus related to the Placement Shares has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus related to the Placement Shares or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable to comply with applicable law in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement) and, provided further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed; (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that (A) the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, (B) the Company has no obligation to provide Cowen any advance copy of such filing or to provide Cowen an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name Cowen or does not relate to the transaction herein provided and (C) the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to provide Cowen with such copy or the filing or such amendment or supplement despite Cowen’s objection shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement, and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) prior to the termination of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise. The determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections shall be made exclusively by the Company. Prior to the initial sale of any Placement Shares, the Company shall file a final ATM Prospectus pursuant to Rule 424(b) relating to the Placement Shares.

(b) Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

 

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(c) Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided however, that the Company may delay any such amendment or supplement if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so, provided that no Placement Notice is in effect during such time.

(d) Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

(e) Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f) Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act. For the avoidance of doubt, the Company’s compliance with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act shall be deemed to satisfy this Section 7(f).

 

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(g) Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $10,000 and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000.

(h) Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(i) Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for three (3) trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or any other equity awards or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise or settlement of options or other equity awards pursuant to the any stock option, stock bonus, employee stock purchase or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, or joint venture, commercial, strategic or collaborative relationship, or (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance or (iv) any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise or vesting of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding.

(j) Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement; provided, that the Company may satisfy its obligations under this Section 7(j) by effecting a filing in accordance with the Exchange Act with respect to such information or fact.

 

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(k) Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

(l) Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through Cowen, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to Cowen with respect to such Placement Shares (provided that the Company may satisfy its obligations under this Section 7(l)(i) by effecting a filing in accordance with the Exchange Act with respect to such information), and (ii) if requested by Cowen, deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

(m) Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, and during the term of this Agreement, and each time the Company (i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares; (ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release or other information “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act, and Cowen has reasonably determined that the information contained in the Form 8-K is material to a holder of Common Stock (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a Representation Date); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days of any Representation Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be automatically waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

 

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(n) Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of Fenwick & West LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Representation Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a negative assurance letter, in the form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel (a “Negative Assurance Letter”), dated the date that the opinion would otherwise be required.

(o) Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the Comfort Letters), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(p) Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

(q) Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

(r) Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries shall use commercially reasonable efforts to maintain, or cause to be maintained, all applicable material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by applicable federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(s) Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

(t) Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

(u) No Offer to Sell. Other than the Prospectus or a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and Cowen in its capacity as principal or agent hereunder, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock hereunder.

(v) Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its subsidiaries will use commercially reasonable efforts to comply in all material respects with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

8. Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a) Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Placement Shares issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

(b) No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated

 

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therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(c) No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(d) Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(e) Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinion or Negative Assurance Letter of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion or Negative Assurance Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

(f) Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Cooley LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion or Negative Assurance Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

(g) Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

(h) Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

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(i) Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

(j) No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

(k) Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

(l) Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

(m) Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

(n) No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

9. Indemnification and Contribution.

(a) Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen (a “Cowen Affiliate”) from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, or (y)

 

- 27 -


the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

(b) Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company (a “Company Affiliate”) against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as and when incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

(c) Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice in writing of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the

 

- 28 -


defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

(d) Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in

 

- 29 -


respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

10. Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

11. Termination.

(a) Cowen shall have the right by giving written notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, would materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion, or letter required under Sections 7(m), 7(n), or 7(o), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than thirty (30) days from the date such delivery was required; or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10

 

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(Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

(b) The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to Cowen for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by Cowen under this Agreement.

(c) Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d) Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(e) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

(f) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

12. Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1130, Attention: General Counsel, with a copy to Cooley LLP at Cooley LLP, 55 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001, fax no. (212) 479-6275, attention: Daniel I. Goldberg; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to the Company at Sutro Biopharma, Inc., 310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150, South San Francisco, CA 94080 fax no. (650) 872-8924 attention: William J. Newell, Chief Executive Officer, with a copy to Fenwick & West LLP at 1191 2nd Avenue, 10th Floor, Seattle, WA 98101, fax no. (206) 389-4511, attention: Amanda Rose. Each party to this Agreement may

 

- 31 -


change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier,(iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid) and (iv) when delivered by electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”), at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party, other than via auto reply. For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

13. Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.

14. Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

15. Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

16. Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action

 

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or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

17. Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby.

18. Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a) Cowen has been retained solely to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

(b) the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

(c) the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

(d) the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

19. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

20. Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following term has the meaning set forth below:

(a) “Agent’s Information” means, solely the following information in the Prospectus: the third sentence of the eighth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus.

 

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(b) “Applicable Time” means the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date, the date on which a Placement Notice is given, and any date on which Placement Shares are sold hereunder.

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

 

- 34 -


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

Very truly yours,
COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
By:  

/s/ Michael Murphy

Name:   Michael Murphy
Title:   Managing Director

ACCEPTED as of the date

first-above written:

SUTRO BIOPHARMA, INC.
By:  

/s/ Edward C. Albini

Name:   Edward C. Albini
Title:   Chief Financial Officer

[Signature Page to Sales Agreement]


SCHEDULE 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:

[                 ]

Cc:

[                 ]

To:

[                 ]

Subject:

Cowen at the Market Offering—Placement Notice

Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Sutro Biopharma, Inc. (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated October 4, 2019 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [     ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $_______ per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].


SCHEDULE 2

Placement Notice Individuals

The Company

William J. Newell, Chief Executive Officer (bnewell@sutrobio.com)

Edward C. Albini, Chief Financial Officer (ealbini@sutrobio.com)

Cowen and Company, LLC

Michael Murphy (michael.murphy@cowen.com)

William Follis (william.follis@cowen.com)


SCHEDULE 3

Compensation

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Common Stock pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.


Exhibit 7(m)

OFFICER CERTIFICATE

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Sutro Biopharma, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated October 4, 2019 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned.

(i) The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

(ii) The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:

Date:                         

EX-4.3

Exhibit 4.3

FORM OF DEBT SECURITY

[Face of Security]

SUTRO BIOPHARMA, INC.

[If applicable, insert—FOR PURPOSES OF THE ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT PROVISIONS OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986, THE ISSUE PRICE OF THIS SECURITY IS     % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT AT STATED MATURITY SET FORTH BELOW (ITS “PRINCIPAL AMOUNT”), THE AMOUNT OF ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT IS     % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT, THE YIELD TO MATURITY IS     % AND THE ISSUE DATE IS                ]

[IF THE SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY, INSERT—THIS NOTE IS A GLOBAL SECURITY. IT IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR NOTES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY (AS HEREINAFTER DEFINED) OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES HEREINAFTER DESCRIBED AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO A SUCCESSOR OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.]

 

No.                

     $                
       CUSIP No.          

Sutro Biopharma, Inc., a Delaware Corporation (herein called the “Company”, which term includes any successor corporation under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof), for value received, hereby promises to pay to, or registered assigns, the principal sum of                  Dollars on                  [if Security is to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—, and to pay interest thereon from                  or from the most recent Interest Payment Date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, semi-annually on                  and                  in each year, commencing                 , at the rate of     % per annum, until the principal hereof is paid or made available for payment [if applicable, insert—, provided that any principal and premium, and any such installment of interest, which is overdue shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment, and such interest shall be payable on demand]. The interest so payable, and punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date will, as provided in such Indenture, be paid to the Person in whose name this Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Record Date for such interest, which shall be the                  or                  (whether or not a Business Day), as the case may be, next preceding such Interest Payment Date. Any such interest not so punctually paid or duly provided for will forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on such Record Date and may either be paid to the Person this Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest to be fixed by the Trustee, notice whereof shall be given to Holders of Securities of this series not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date, or be paid at any time in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which the Securities of this series may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, all as more fully provided in said Indenture. [If the Security is not to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—The principal of this Security shall not bear interest except in the case of a default in payment of principal upon acceleration, upon redemption or at Stated Maturity and in such case the overdue principal and any overdue premium shall bear interest at the rate of     % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue principal or premium shall be payable on demand. [Any such interest on overdue principal or premium which is not paid on demand shall bear interest at the rate of     % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest on interest shall be legally enforceable), from the date of such demand until the amount so demanded is paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue interest shall be payable on demand.]].

Payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and [any such] interest on this Security will be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in                  in such coin or currency of [the United States of America] as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts[; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Register].

Reference is hereby made to the further provisions of this Security set forth on the reverse hereof, which further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.


Unless the certificate of authentication hereon has been manually executed by or on behalf of the Trustee under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof, this Security shall not be entitled to any benefit under the Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this instrument to be duly executed under its corporate seal.

 

Dated:             Sutro Biopharma, Inc.
    By  

 

      [Title]

 

Attest and Countersign                         

 
   

Secretary

 

 

2


[Reverse of Security.]

SUTRO BIOPHARMA, INC.

This Security is one of a duly authorized issue of securities of the Company (herein called the “Securities”), issued and to be issued in one or more series under an Indenture dated as of                 , (herein called the “Indenture,” which term shall have the meaning assigned to it in such instrument), between the Company and                 , as trustee (herein called the “Trustee”, which term includes any successor trustee under the Indenture), to which Indenture and all indentures supplemental thereto reference is hereby made for a statement of the respective rights, limitations or rights, duties and immunities thereunder of the Company, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities and of the terms upon which the Securities are, and are to be, authenticated and delivered. This Security is one of the series designated on the face hereof [, limited in aggregate principal amount to $        ].

[If the Security is to be subordinated, insert—The indebtedness evidenced by this Security is, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the Indenture, expressly subordinated and subject in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all Senior Indebtedness (as defined in the Indenture) of the Company. This Security is issued subject to such provisions of the Indenture, and each Holder of this Security, by accepting the same, agrees to and shall be bound by such provisions and authorizes and directs the Trustee on the Holder’s behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to acknowledge or effectuate such subordination as provided in the Indenture and appoints the Trustee such Holder’s attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.]

The Securities of this series are subject to redemption upon not less than 30 days’, and no more than 60 days, notice provided in the manner set forth in the Indenture, [(1) on in any year commencing with the year and ending with the year at the Redemption Price equal to 100% of the principal amount, and (2)] at any time [on or after], as a whole or in part, at the election of the principal the following Redemption Prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount): If redeemed [on or before,     %, and if redeemed] during the 12-month period beginning of the years indicated,

 

Year

   Redemption Price      Year      Redemption Price  
        
        
        

and thereafter at a Redemption Price equal to % of the principal amount together in the case of any such redemption with accrued interest to the Redemption Date, but interest installments whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to such Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities of record at the close of business on the relevant record dates referred to on the face hereof, all as provided in the Indenture.

[If the Security is to be redeemable in part, insert—In the event of redemption of this Security in part only, a new Security or Securities of this series for the unredeemed portion hereof will be issued in the name of the Holder hereof upon the cancellation hereof.]

[If the Security is to be subject to repayment at the option of the Holder, insert—To be repaid at the option of the Holder, the Company must receive this Security, with the form of “Option to Elect Repayment” hereon duly completed, at an office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in (or at such other place of which the Company shall from time to time notify the Holder of this Security) not less than nor more than days prior to the Repayment Date. The exercise of the repayment option by the Holder shall be irrevocable.]

[If the Security is not to be subject to redemption at the option of the Company, insert—The Securities are not redeemable at the option of the Company prior to Maturity.]

[If the Security is not to be an Original Issue Discount Security, insert—If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of this series shall occur and be continuing, the principal of the Securities of this series may be declared due and payable in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture.]

The Indenture permits, with certain exceptions as therein provided, the amendment thereof and the modification of the rights and obligations of the Company and the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each series under the Indenture to be affected at any time by the Company with the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of each series to be affected.

 

3


The Indenture also contains provisions permitting the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding, on behalf of the Holders of all Securities of such series, to waive compliance by the Company with certain provisions of the Indenture and certain past defaults under the Indenture and their consequences. Any such consent or waiver by the Holder of this Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders of this Security and of any Security issued upon the registration of transfer hereof or in exchange herefor or in lieu hereof, whether or not notation of such consent of waiver is made upon this Security.

As provided in and subject to the provisions of the indenture, the Holder of this Security shall not have the right to institute any proceeding with respect to the Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee or for any other remedy thereunder, unless such Holder shall have previously given the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of this series , the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the Securities of this series at the time Outstanding shall have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default as Trustee and offered the Trustee reasonable indemnity satisfactory to it, and the Trustee shall not have received from the Holders of a majority in principal amount of Securities of this series at the time Outstanding a direction inconsistent with such request, and shall have failed to institute any such proceeding, for 90 days after receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity. The foregoing shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Holder of this Security for the enforcement of any payment of principal hereof or any premium or interest hereon on or after the respective due dates expressed herein.

No reference herein to the Indenture and no provision of this Security or of the Indenture shall alter or impair the obligation of the Company, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security at the times, place and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

[If the Security is to be in registered form, insert—As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, the transfer of this Security is registrable in the Register, upon surrender of this Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency of the Company in any place where the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security are payable, duly endorsed by, or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar duly executed by, the Holder hereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing, and, thereupon one or more new Securities of this series, of authorized denominations and for the same aggregate principal amount, will be issued to the designated transferee or transferees.]

[The Securities of this series are issuable only in registered form in denominations of $ [and any integral multiple] [or increments of $ in excess] thereof. As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, Securities of this series are exchangeable for a like aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series of a different authorized denomination, as requested by the Holder surrendering the same.]

[No service charge shall be made for any such registration of transfer or exchange, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.]

[Prior to due presentment of this Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name this Security is registered as the owner hereof for all purposes, whether or not this Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any such agent shall be affected by notice to the contrary.]

[If the Security is a Global Security, insert—“Global Security” and “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary (as hereinafter defined) for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee. “Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as the Depositary by the Company.

No holder of any beneficial interest in this Security held on its behalf by a Depositary or a nominee of such Depositary shall have any rights under the Indenture with respect to such Global Security, and such Depositary or nominee may be treated by the Company, the Trustee, and any agent of the Company or the Trustee as the owner of such Global Security for all purposes whatsoever. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing herein shall impair, as between a Depositary and such holders of beneficial interests, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of the Depositary as Holder of any Security.

This Security is exchangeable, in whole but not in part, for Securities registered in the names of Persons other than the Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary only if (i) the Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for this Note or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and, in either case, a successor depositary is not appointed by the Company within 90 days, (ii) the Company in its discretion at any time determines not to have all of the Securities of this series represented by one or more Global Security or Securities and notifies the Trustee thereof, or (iii) an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the Securities of this series. If this Security is exchangeable pursuant to the

 

4


preceding sentence, it shall be exchangeable for Securities issuable in authorized denominations and registered in such names as the Depositary holding this Security shall direct. Subject to the foregoing, this Security is not exchangeable, except for a Security or Securities of the same aggregate denominations to be registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary.]

[The Indenture entitles Holders to receive annual reports with respect to the Trustee’s eligibility and qualifications to serve as Trustee by filing their names and addresses with the Trustee for that purpose within two years preceding and mailing of any such annual report.]

No recourse shall be had for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) or interest on this Security, or for any claim based hereon, or otherwise in respect hereof, or based on or in respect of the Indenture of any indenture supplemental thereto, against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, as such, past, present or future, of the Company or any successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise, all such liability being, by the acceptance hereof and as part of the consideration for the issue hereof, expressly waived and released.

All terms used in this Security which are defined in the Indenture shall have the meanings assigned to them in the Indenture.

This Security, including without limitation the obligation of the Company contained herein to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security in accordance with the terms hereof and of the Indenture, shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York.

[Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.]

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

                                                                      , as

[Authenticating Agent for] the Trustee

     
By  

 

     
  Authorized Officer      

 

5

EX-4.4

Exhibit 4.4

SUTRO BIOPHARMA, INC.

And

                    , as Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                 ,


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ARTICLE 1 – DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

1.1 DEFINITIONS

     1  

1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS

     4  

1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT

     4  

1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION

     4  

ARTICLE 2 – THE SECURITIES

     5  

2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES

     5  

2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES

     5  

2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION

     6  

2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT

     7  

2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST

     7  

2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS

     8  

2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE

     8  

2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES

     8  

2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES

     9  

2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION

     9  

2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES

     9  

2.12. CANCELLATION

     9  

2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST

     9  

2.14. CUSIP NUMBER

     10  

2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES

     10  

2.16. PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS

     11  

ARTICLE 3 – REDEMPTION

     11  

3.1. NOTICES TO TRUSTEE

     11  

3.2. SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED

     11  

3.3. NOTICE OF REDEMPTION

     11  

3.4. EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION

     12  

3.5. DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE

     12  

3.6. SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART

     12  

ARTICLE 4 – COVENANTS

     12  

4.1. PAYMENT OF SECURITIES

     12  

4.2. SEC REPORTS

     13  

4.3. WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS

     13  

4.4. COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE

     13  

4.5. CORPORATE EXISTENCE

     13  

ARTICLE 5 – SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

     13  

5.1. LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS

     13  

5.2. SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED

     14  

ARTICLE 6 – DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     14  

6.1. EVENTS OF DEFAULT

     14  

6.2. ACCELERATION

     15  

6.3. REMEDIES

     15  

6.4. WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT

     15  

6.5. CONTROL BY MAJORITY

     15  

6.6. LIMITATION ON SUITS

     16  

6.7. RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT

     16  

6.8. COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE

     16  

6.9. TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM

     16  

6.10. PRIORITIES

     17  

6.11. UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS

     17  

ARTICLE 7 – TRUSTEE

     17  

7.1. DUTIES OF TRUSTEE

     17  

7.2. RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE

     18  

7.3. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE

     18  

7.4. TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER

     18  

7.5. NOTICE OF DEFAULT

     19  

 

i


7.6. REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS

     19  

7.7. COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY

     19  

7.8. REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE

     19  

7.9. SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION

     20  

7.10. ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION

     20  

7.11. PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY

     20  

7.12. PAYING AGENTS

     20  

ARTICLE 8 – AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

     21  

8.1. WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS

     21  

8.2. WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS

     21  

8.3. COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT

     22  

8.4. REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS

     22  

8.5. NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     22  

8.6. TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.

     22  

ARTICLE 9 – DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE

     23  

9.1. DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE

     23  

9.2. LEGAL DEFEASANCE

     23  

9.3. COVENANT DEFEASANCE

     23  

9.4. CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE

     23  

9.5. DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER  MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     24  

9.6. REINSTATEMENT

     24  

9.7. MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT

     25  

9.8. MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE

     25  

ARTICLE 10 – MISCELLANEOUS

     25  

10.1. TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS

     25  

10.2. NOTICES

     25  

10.3. COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS

     26  

10.4. CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT

     26  

10.5. STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION

     26  

10.6. RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS

     27  

10.7. BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT

     27  

10.8. GOVERNING LAW

     27  

10.9. NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS

     27  

10.10. NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS

     27  

10.11. SUCCESSORS

     27  

10.12. MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS

     27  

10.13. TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.

     27  

10.14. SEVERABILITY

     27  

10.15. SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS

     28  

10.16. JUDGMENT CURRENCY

     28  

 

ii


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE

 

TIA SECTION

   INDENTURE SECTION

310(a)(1)(2)(5)

   7.10

310(a)(3)(4)

   Inapplicable

310(b)

   7.8; 7.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)(b)

   7.11

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   2.6

312(b)(c)

   10.3

313(a)(b)

   7.6

313(c)

   7.6; 10.2

313(d)

   7.6

314(a)

   4.2; 4.4; 10.2

314(b)

   N/A

314(c)(1)(2)

   10.4; 10.5

314(c)(3)

   Inapplicable

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   10.5

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   7.1, 7.2

315(b)

   7.5; 10.2

315(c)

   7.1

315(d)

   7.1; 7.2

315(e)

   6.11

316(a)(last sentence)

   2.10

316(a)(1)(A)

   6.5

316(a)(1)(B)

   6.4

316(a)(2)

   8.2

316(b)

   6.7

316(c)

   8.4

317(a)(1)

   6.8

317(a)(2)

   6.9

317(b)

   2.5; 7.12

318(a)

   10.1

Note: This Cross-Reference Table shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

 

iii


INDENTURE, dated as of                 ,                 , by and between Sutro Biopharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation, as Issuer (the “Company”) and                 , a                organized under the laws of                 , as Trustee (the “Trustee”).

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”), as herein provided, up to such principal amount as may from time to time be authorized in or pursuant to one or more resolutions of the Board of Directors or by supplemental indenture.

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms have been done, and the execution and delivery thereof have been in all respects duly authorized by the parties hereto.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities of a Series thereof, as follows:

ARTICLE 1 –

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

1.1 DEFINITIONS.

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person which, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by or is under common control with, such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise.

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, co-registrar or agent for service of notices and demands.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any committee duly authorized to act therefor.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification which has been delivered to the Trustee.

“Capital Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all shares or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, partnership interests or any other participation, right or other interest in the nature of an equity interest in such Person or any option, warrant or other security convertible into any of the foregoing.

“Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces such party pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor and any other primary obligor on the Securities.

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be its Chief Executive Officer or its Vice President of Finance.

“Company Request” means any written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, any Vice President, its Chief Financial Officer or its Treasurer and attested to by its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered.

“Default” means any event that is, or that with the passing of time or giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency

 

1


registered under the Exchange Act, until a successor Depository shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depository” shall mean each Person who is then a Depository hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, such Persons.

“Dollars” means the currency of the United States of America.

“Euro” means the single currency of participating member states of the economic and monetary union as contemplated in the Treaty on European Union.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied as in effect in the United States of America from time to time.

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2, evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee, and bearing the legend set forth in Section 2.15(c) (or such other legend(s) as may be applied to such Securities in accordance with Section 2.2(24)).

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means the Person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.

“Indebtedness” means (without duplication), with respect to any Person, any indebtedness at any time outstanding, secured or unsecured, contingent or otherwise, which is for borrowed money (whether or not the recourse of the lender is to the whole of the assets of such Person or only to a portion thereof), or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments, or representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property (excluding any balances that constitute accounts payable or trade payables, and other accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business), if and to the extent any of the foregoing indebtedness would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of such Person prepared in accordance with GAAP.

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time.

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

“Lien” means, with respect to any property or assets of any Person, any mortgage or deed of trust, pledge, hypothecation, assignment, deposit arrangement, security interest, lien, charge, easement, encumbrance, preference, priority or other security agreement or preferential arrangement of any kind or nature whatsoever on or with respect to such property or assets (including, without limitation, any capitalized lease obligation, conditional sales or other title retention agreement having substantially the same economic effect as any of the foregoing).

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security, or an installment of principal, becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect payment or otherwise.

“Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or the Secretary of the Company, or any other officer designated by the Board of Directors, as the case may be.

“Officers’ Certificate” means, with respect to any Person, a certificate signed by the Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President or any Senior or Executive Vice President and the Chief Financial Officer or any Treasurer of such Person, that shall comply with applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

2


“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion from legal counsel, which counsel is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government (including any agency or political subdivision thereof).

“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption pursuant to this Indenture.

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the corporate trust department or division of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers, and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission as constituted from time to time, or any successor performing substantially the same functions.

“Securities” means the securities that are issued under this Indenture, as amended or supplemented from time to time pursuant to this Indenture.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2.

“Significant Subsidiary” means (i) any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Company that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof, or (ii) any group of direct or indirect Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together as a group, would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof.

“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security, or such installment of principal or interest, is due and payable, and when used with respect to any other Indebtedness, means the date specified in the instrument governing such Indebtedness as the fixed date on which the principal of such Indebtedness, or any installment of interest thereon, is due and payable.

“Subsidiary” of any specified Person means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, whether now existing or hereafter organized or acquired, (i) in the case of a corporation, of which more than 50% of the total voting power of the Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors thereof is held, directly or indirectly, by such Person or any of its Subsidiaries; or (ii) in the case of a partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, with respect to which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such entity by contract or otherwise, or if in accordance with GAAP such entity is consolidated with such Person for financial statement purposes.

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Section 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture (except as provided in Section 8.3).

“Trustee” means the party named as such in this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

“U.S. Government Obligations” means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

 

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1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS.

The definitions of the following terms may be found in the sections indicated as follows:

 

TERM

   DEFINED IN SECTION

“Bankruptcy Law”

   6.1

“Business Day”

   10.7  

“Covenant Defeasance”

   9.3

“Custodian”

   6.1

“Event of Default”

   6.1

“Journal”

   10.15

“Judgment Currency”

   10.16

“Legal Defeasance”

   9.2

“Legal Holiday”

   10.7  

“Market Exchange Rate”

   10.15

“New York Paying Agent”

   2.4

“Paying Agent”

   2.4

“Place of Payment”

   10.7  

“Registrar”

   2.4

“Required Currency”

   10.16

“Service Agent”

   2.4

1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the portion of such provision required to be incorporated herein in order for this Indenture to be qualified under the TIA is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

“Commission” means the SEC.

“Indenture securities” means the Securities.

“Indenture securityholder” means a Holder or Securityholder.

“Indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

“Indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

“Obligor on the indenture securities” means the Company.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined in the TIA by reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule have the meanings therein assigned to them.

1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) a term has the meaning assigned to it herein, whether defined expressly or by reference;

(2) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(3) “or” is not exclusive;

 

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(4) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

(5) words used herein implying any gender shall apply to each gender; and

(6) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

ARTICLE 2 –

THE SECURITIES

2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is $        ,             ,            . The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, Stated Maturity, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, PROVIDED, that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2(1) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2(2) through 2.2(24)) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, in each case, pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

(1) the title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5);

(3) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

(5) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date;

(6) the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series shall be payable, or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

(7) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(9) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof, and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

(10) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

(11) the forms of the Securities of the Series in bearer (if to be issued outside of the United States of America) or fully registered form (and, if in fully registered form, whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities);

 

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(12) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

(13) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, including, but not limited to, the Euro, and, if such currency of denomination is a composite currency other than the Euro, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

(14) the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be made;

(15) if payments of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

(16) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

(17) the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for the Securities of the Series;

(18) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles 4 or 5 that applies to Securities of the Series;

(19) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series, any provision for the payment of additional interest or liquidated damages in connection with any Event of Default, and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

(20) the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion of the Securities into or exchange of the Securities for shares of common stock, preferred stock, other debt securities or warrants for common stock, preferred stock or other securities of any kind of the Company that apply to Securities of the Series;

(21) any Trustees, depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

(22) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to other Indebtedness of the Company;

(23) if applicable, that the Securities of the Series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Article 9; and

(24) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 8.1, but which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time, and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, however, the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuances of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate.

2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by two Officers of the Company or an Officer and an Assistant Secretary of the Company. Each such signature may be either manual or facsimile. The Company’s seal may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or reproduced on the Securities and may be in facsimile form.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

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The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of any Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised in writing by outside counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents shall reasonably determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability, or cause it to have a conflict of interest with respect to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Any appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument signed by an authorized officer of the Trustee, a copy of which shall be furnished to the Company. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.

The Company shall maintain in each Place of Payment for any Series of Securities (i) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (“Registrar”), (ii) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for payment (“Paying Agent”) (PROVIDED that the Company shall at all times maintain a Paying Agent in the Borough of Manhattan, City of New York, State of New York (the “New York Paying Agent”), and PROVIDED, FURTHER, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register for the Securities maintained by the Registrar), and (iii) an office or agency where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served (“Service Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register of the Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company may have one or more co-registrars and one or more additional paying agents. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office, or to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee as set forth in Section 10.2. If the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate the money held by it for the payment of principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities and hold it as a separate trust fund. The Company may change any Paying Agent, Registrar, co-registrar or any other Agent without notice to any Securityholder.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes, and may from time to time rescind such designations; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as such office of the Company. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of such designation or rescission, and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Registrar or Paying Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture that relate to such Agent. The Company shall notify the Trustee of the name and address of any such Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent, or agent for service of notices and demands, or fails to give the foregoing notice, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued. The Company designates , as the New York Paying Agent, with offices at .

2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.

The Trustee as Paying Agent shall, and the Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that each Paying Agent shall, hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee all assets held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Series of Securities (whether such assets have

 

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been distributed to it by the Company or any other obligor on such Series of Securities), and the Company and the Paying Agent shall notify the Trustee in writing of any Default by the Company (or any other obligor on such Series of Securities) in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and account for any assets disbursed, and the Trustee may, at any time during the continuance of any payment default with respect to any Series of Securities, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and to account for any assets distributed. Upon distribution to the Trustee of all assets that shall have been delivered by the Company to the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for such assets.

2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities. If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee as of each regular record date for the payment of interest on the Securities of a Series and before each related Interest Payment Date, and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

When Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to register the transfer thereof, the Registrar shall register the transfer as requested if the requirements of applicable law are met, and when such Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to exchange them for an equal principal amount of other authorized denominations of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall make the exchange as requested. To permit transfers and exchanges, upon surrender of any Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency maintained pursuant to Section 2.4, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request.

If Securities are issued as Global Securities, the provisions of Section 2.15 shall apply.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Registrar or a co-registrar) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar or a co-registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company may require payment by the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation to a transfer or exchange, but this provision shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5. The Trustee shall not be required to register transfers of Securities of any Series, or to exchange Securities of any Series, for a period of 15 days before the record date for selection for redemption of such Securities. The Trustee shall not be required to exchange or register transfers of Securities of any Series called or being called for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of such Security being redeemed in part.

2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.

If a mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, or if the Holder of a Security presents evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a replacement Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. An indemnity bond may be required by the Company or the Trustee that is sufficient in the reasonable judgment of the Company or the Trustee, as the case may be, to protect the Company, the Trustee or any Agent from any loss which any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company may charge such Holder for the Company’s out-of-pocket expenses in replacing a Security, including the fees and expenses of the Trustee. Every replacement Security shall constitute an original additional obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

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2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.

Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities authenticated by the Trustee, except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation and those described in this Section 2.9 as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8 (other than a mutilated Security surrendered for replacement), it ceases to be outstanding until the Company and the Trustee receive proof satisfactory to each of them that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser. A mutilated Security ceases to be outstanding upon surrender of such Security and replacement thereof pursuant to Section 2.8.

If a Paying Agent holds on a Redemption Date or the Stated Maturity money sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest on, Securities payable on that date, and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders thereof pursuant to the terms of this Indenture (PROVIDED, that if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made), then on and after that date such Securities cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

A Security does not cease to be outstanding solely because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.

2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.

In determining whether the Holders of the required aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any Series have concurred in any direction, waiver or consent, the Securities of any Series owned by the Company or any other obligor on such Securities, or by any Affiliate of any of them, shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, waiver or consent, only Securities of such Series which the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities of such Series so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to the Securities of such Series and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of such Series, or an Affiliate of any of them.

2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, temporary Securities. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form, and shall carry all rights, of definitive Securities, but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, definitive Securities in exchange for temporary Securities without charge to the Holder.

2.12. CANCELLATION.

All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption or registration of transfer or exchange, or for credit against any sinking fund payment, shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee or, at the direction of the Trustee, the Registrar or the Paying Agent, and no one else, shall cancel, and at the written request of the Company shall dispose of, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation. If the Company shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to this Section 2.12. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section 2.12, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture.

2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.

Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 2.2 with respect to any Series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, as provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the terms of such Series.

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities, it shall pay the defaulted amounts, plus any interest payable on defaulted amounts pursuant to Section 4.1, to the Persons who are Securityholders on a subsequent special record date, which date shall be the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, or the next succeeding

 

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Business Day if such date is not a Business Day. At least 15 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail or cause to be mailed to each Securityholder, with a copy to the Trustee, a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest, and interest payable on such defaulted interest, if any, to be paid.

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of each Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

2.14. CUSIP NUMBER.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use one or more “CUSIP” numbers, and, if the Company does so, the Trustee shall use the CUSIP number(s) in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders, PROVIDED, that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number(s) printed in the notice or on the Securities, and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and that any such redemption or exchange shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of any such numbers.

2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.

(a) A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, and the Depository for such Global Securities or Securities.

(b) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 and in addition thereto, if, and only if the Depository (i) at any time is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and (ii) a successor Depository is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the date the Company is so informed in writing or becomes aware of the same, the Company promptly will execute and deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities, and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of such definitive Securities (which the Company will promptly execute and deliver to the Trustee) and an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable, will authenticate and deliver definitive Securities, without charge, registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall direct in writing (pursuant to instructions from its direct and indirect participants or otherwise) in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms. Upon the exchange of a Global Security for definitive Securities, such Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for definitive Securities, as provided in this Section 2.15(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

(c) Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to, and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a Person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”

(d) The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

(e) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, any Global Security shall be made to the Depository or its nominee in its capacity as the Holder thereof.

(f) Except as provided in Section 2.15(e) above, the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a Person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of any Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depository (which may be in the form of a participants’ list for such Series) with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture, PROVIDED, that until the Trustee is so provided with a written statement, it may treat the Depository or any other Person in whose name a Global Security is registered as the owner of such Global Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Global Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

 

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2.16. PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.

Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any agent of the Company, the Registrar or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar or any agent of the Company, the Trustee or the Registrar shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

ARTICLE 3 –

REDEMPTION

3.1. NOTICES TO TRUSTEE.

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities, or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof, prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company elects to redeem all or part of such Series of Securities, it shall notify the Trustee of the Redemption Date and the principal amount of Securities to be redeemed at least 45 days (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) before the Redemption Date. Any such notice may be canceled at any time prior to notice of such redemption being mailed to any Holder, and shall thereby be void and of no effect.

3.2. SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series of Securities by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of a Series to be redeemed pro rata, by lot or by any other method that the Trustee considers fair and appropriate (unless the Company specifically directs the Trustee otherwise) and, if such Securities are listed on any securities exchange, by a method that complies with the requirements of such exchange.

The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of a Series outstanding and not previously called for redemption, and shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Security selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed at least 35 but not more than 60 days before the Redemption Date. Securities of a Series in denominations of $1,000 may be redeemed only in whole. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of a Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of a Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2(10), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities called for redemption.

3.3. NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days, and no more than 60 days, before a Redemption Date, the Company shall mail, or cause to be mailed, a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed at his or her last address as the same appears on the registry books maintained by the Registrar. The notice shall identify the Securities to be redeemed and shall state:

(1) the Redemption Date;

(2) the redemption price, and that such redemption price shall become due and payable on the Redemption Date;

(3) if any Security of a Series is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security of a Series to be redeemed and that, after the Redemption Date and upon surrender of such Security of a Series, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion will be issued;

(4) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(5) that Securities of a Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price, and the place or places where each such Security is to be surrendered for such payment;

 

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(6) that, unless the Company defaults in making the redemption payment, interest on the Securities of a Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on the Redemption Date, and the only remaining right of the Holders of such Securities is to receive payment of the redemption price upon surrender to the Paying Agent of the Securities redeemed;

(7) if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the identification of the particular Securities of a Series (or portion thereof) to be redeemed, as well as the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be redeemed and the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be outstanding after such partial redemption.

(8) the CUSIP number, if any, printed on the Securities being redeemed; and

(9) that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in such notice or printed on the Securities.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at the Company’s sole expense.

3.4. EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Once the notice of redemption described in Section 3.3 is mailed, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the Redemption Date and at the redemption price, plus interest, if any, accrued to the Redemption Date. Upon surrender to the Trustee or Paying Agent, such Securities of a Series shall be paid at the redemption price, plus accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date; PROVIDED, that if the Redemption Date is after a regular interest payment record date and on or prior to the next Interest Payment Date, the accrued interest shall be payable to the Holder of the redeemed Securities registered on the relevant record date, as specified by the Company in the notice to the Trustee pursuant to Section  3.1.

3.5. DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.

On or prior to the Redemption Date (but no later than 11:00 A.M. Eastern Time on such date), the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date other than Securities or portions thereof called for redemption on that date which have been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation.

On and after any Redemption Date, if money sufficient to pay the redemption price of, and accrued interest on, Securities called for redemption shall have been made available in accordance with the preceding paragraph and the Company and the Paying Agent are not prohibited from paying such moneys to Holders, the Securities called for redemption will cease to accrue interest and the only right of the Holders of such Securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price of and, subject to the proviso in Section 3.4, accrued and unpaid interest on such Securities to the Redemption Date. If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid, interest will be paid, from the Redemption Date until such redemption payment is made, on the unpaid principal of the Security and any interest or premium, if any, not paid on such unpaid principal, in each case, at the rate and in the manner provided in the Securities.

3.6. SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.

Upon surrender of a Security of a Series that is redeemed in part, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, for a Holder a new Security of the same Series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE 4 –

COVENANTS

4.1. PAYMENT OF SECURITIES.

The Company shall pay the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, each Series of Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in such Securities and this Indenture.

An installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Trustee or Paying Agent holds on that date money designated for and sufficient to pay such installment and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or otherwise.

The Company shall pay interest on overdue principal, and overdue interest, to the extent lawful, at the rate specified in the Series of Securities.

 

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4.2. SEC REPORTS.

The Company will deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after the filing of the same with the SEC, copies of the quarterly and annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports, if any, which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that each such report or document will be deemed to be so delivered to the Trustee if the Company files such report or document with the SEC through the SEC’s EDGAR database no later than the time such report or document is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act. Notwithstanding that the Company may not be subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the Company will file with the SEC, to the extent permitted, and provide the Trustee with, such quarterly and annual reports and such information, documents and other reports specified in Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company will also comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).

4.3. WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS.

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead (as a defense or otherwise) or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension, usury or other law which would prohibit or forgive the Company from paying all or any portion of the principal of, and/or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities as contemplated herein, wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, or which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company hereby expressly waives (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) all benefit or advantage of any such law, and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

4.4. COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE.

(a) The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officers’ Certificate which complies with TIA Section 314(a)(4) stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during such fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his or her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and that there is no default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he or she may have knowledge and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto) and that to the best of his or her knowledge no event has occurred and remains in existence by reason of which payments on account of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities is prohibited, or if such event has occurred, a description of the event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

(b)(i) If any Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or (ii) if any Holder seeks to exercise any remedy hereunder with respect to a claimed Default under this Indenture or the Securities, within five Business Days after the Company becoming aware of such occurrence the Company shall deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying such event, notice or other action and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

4.5. CORPORATE EXISTENCE.

Subject to Article 5, the Company shall do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence, in accordance with the organizational documents (as the same may be amended from time to time) of the Company and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or its corporate existence, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

ARTICLE 5 –

SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

5.1. LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS.

(a) The Company will not, in any transaction or series of transactions, merge or consolidate with or into, or sell, assign, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets (as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in one transaction or a series of related transactions), to any Person or Persons, unless at the time of and after giving effect thereto

 

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(i) either (A) if the transaction or series of transactions is a merger or consolidation, the Company shall be the surviving Person of such merger or consolidation, or (B) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which the properties and assets of the Company are transferred (any such surviving Person or transferee Person being the “Surviving Entity”) shall be a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and shall expressly assume by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, all of the obligations of the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to pay the principal of, and premium and interest, if any, on, the Securities and the performance of the other covenants) under the Securities of each Series and this Indenture, and in each case, this Indenture shall remain in full force and effect; and (ii) immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis (including, without limitation, any Indebtedness incurred or anticipated to be incurred in connection with or in respect of such transaction or series of transactions), no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing.

(b) In connection with any consolidation, merger or transfer of assets contemplated by this Section 5.1, the Company shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Trustee, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer, and the supplemental indenture in respect thereto, comply with this Section 5.1, and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction or transactions have been complied with.

5.2. SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.

Upon any consolidation, merger or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1 above, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company is merged or to which such transfer is made, shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor corporation had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter (except with respect to any such transfer which is a lease) the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

ARTICLE 6 –

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

6.1. EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

“Events of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(1) there is a default in the payment of any principal of, or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same becomes due and payable at Maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise;

(2) there is a default in the payment of any interest on any Security of a Series when the same becomes due and payable, and the Default continues for a period of 30 days;

(3) the Company defaults in the observance or performance of any other covenant in the Securities of a Series or in this Indenture for 90 days after written notice from the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding, which notice must specify the Default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;

(4) the Company or any Significant Subsidiary pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(A) commences a voluntary case,

(B) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(C) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

(D) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

(E) generally is not paying its debts as they become due;

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(A) is for relief against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary in an involuntary case;

 

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(B) appoints a Custodian of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, or for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary; or

(C) orders the liquidation of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days; or

(6) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2(19).

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

The Trustee may withhold notice of any Default (except in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities) to the Holders of the Securities of any Series in accordance with Section  7.5. When a Default is cured, it ceases to exist.

6.2. ACCELERATION.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding (other than an Event of Default arising under Section 6.1(4) or (5)) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee by written notice to the Company, or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may declare that the entire principal amount of all the Securities of that Series then outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of acceleration are immediately due and payable, in which case such amounts shall become immediately due and payable; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that after such acceleration but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the Trustee, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may rescind and annul such acceleration and its consequences if (i) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, interest or premium, if any, that has become due solely because of the acceleration, have been cured or waived, (ii) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid and (iii) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereto. In case an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) with respect to the Company occurs, such principal, premium, if any, and interest amount with respect to all of the Securities of that Series shall be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the Holders of the Securities of that Series.

6.3. REMEDIES.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may pursue any available remedy by proceeding at law or in equity to collect the payment of the principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of that Series, or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of that Series or this Indenture.

The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities of that Series or does not produce any of them in the proceeding. A delay or omission by the Trustee or any Securityholder in exercising any right or remedy accruing upon an Event of Default shall not impair the right or remedy or constitute a waiver of or acquiescence in the Event of Default. No remedy is exclusive of any other remedy. All available remedies are cumulative to the extent permitted by law.

6.4. WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding have the right to waive any existing Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series or compliance with any provision of this Indenture (with respect to such Series) or the Securities of such Series. Upon any such waiver, such Default with respect to such Series shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default with respect to such Series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto. This Section 6.4 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

6.5. CONTROL BY MAJORITY.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee by this Indenture with respect to such Series. The Trustee, however, may refuse to follow

 

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any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, or that the Trustee determines may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Securityholder, or that may involve the Trustee in personal liability; PROVIDED, that the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction. This Section 6.5 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

6.6. LIMITATION ON SUITS.

Subject to Section 6.7, a Securityholder may not institute any proceeding or pursue any remedy with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of a Series unless:

(1) the Holder gives to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(2) the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding make a written request to the Trustee to pursue the remedy;

(3) such Holder or Holders offer to the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(4) the Trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding.

A Securityholder may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Securityholder, or to obtain a preference or priority over another Securityholder.

6.7. RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security of a Series to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Security of such Series on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Security of such Series, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, is absolute and unconditional, and shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the Holder.

6.8. COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.

If an Event of Default in payment of principal, interest or premium, if any, specified in Section 6.1(1) or (2) with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities of that Series) for the whole amount of unpaid principal and premium, if any, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, together with interest on overdue principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest, in each case at the rate then borne by the Securities of that Series, and such further amounts as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, as set forth in Section 7.7.

6.9. TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.

The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents, and take other actions (including sitting on a committee of creditors), as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), any of their respective creditors or any of their respective property, and the Trustee shall be entitled and empowered to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute the same after deduction of its charges and expenses to the extent that any such charges and expenses are not paid out of the estate in any such proceedings, and any custodian in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Securityholder to make such payments to the Trustee, and in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

 

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Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to, or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder, any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of a Series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceedings.

6.10. PRIORITIES.

If the Trustee collects any money pursuant to this Article 6, it shall pay out the money in the following order:

FIRST: to the Trustee for amounts due under Section 7.7;

SECOND: to Securityholders for amounts then due and unpaid for the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities in respect of which, or for the benefit of which, such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities; for principal and any premium and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: to the Company.

The Trustee may fix a record date and payment date for any payment to Securityholders pursuant to this Section 6.10. At least 15 days before such record date, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder a notice that states the record date, the payment date and amount to be paid.

6.11. UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.

In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, a court in its discretion may require the filing by any party litigant in the suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court in its discretion may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in the suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.11 does not apply to a suit by the Trustee, a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.7 or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the Securities of a Series  then outstanding.

ARTICLE 7 –

TRUSTEE

7.1. DUTIES OF TRUSTEE.

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent Person would exercise or use under the same circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(1) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no covenants or obligations shall be implied in this Indenture against the Trustee.

(2) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture, but, in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(1) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section 7.1.

(2) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(3) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in accordance with a direction received by it pursuant to Sections 6.2 and 6.5.

(d) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds, or otherwise incur any financial liability, in the performance of any of its rights or powers if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it.

 

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(e) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this Section 7.1 shall govern every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee.

(f) The Trustee and Paying Agent shall not be liable for interest on any money received by either of them, except as the Trustee and Paying Agent may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by the law.

(g) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections, immunities and standard of care set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d) and (f) of this Section 7.1 and in Section 7.2 with respect to the Trustee.

7.2. RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

(a) Subject to Section 7.1:

(1) The Trustee may rely on, and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon, any document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper Person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(2) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel, or both, which shall conform to the provisions of Section 10.5. The Trustee shall be protected and shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such certificate or opinion.

(3) The Trustee may act through agents and attorneys, and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed by it with due care.

(4) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it reasonably believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.

(5) The Trustee may consult with counsel reasonably acceptable to the Trustee, which may be counsel to the Company, and the advice or opinion of such counsel as to matters of law shall be full and complete authorization and protection from liability in respect of any action taken, omitted or suffered by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice or opinion of such counsel.

(6) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which may be incurred therein or thereby.

(7) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any fact or matter (including, without limitation, a Default or Event of Default) unless such fact or matter is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee.

(8) Unless otherwise expressly provided herein or in the Securities of a Series or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, the Trustee shall not have any responsibility with respect to reports, notices, certificates or other documents filed with it hereunder, except to make them available for inspection, at reasonable times, by Securityholders, it being understood that delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (except as set forth in Section 4.4).

7.3. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities, and may make loans to, accept deposits from, perform services for or otherwise deal with the Company, or any Affiliate thereof, with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee, however, shall be subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

7.4. TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER.

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities (except that the Trustee represents that it is duly authorized to execute and deliver this Indenture and authenticate the Securities and perform its obligations hereunder), and the Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the sale of Securities or any money paid to the Company pursuant to the terms of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its certificates of authentication.

 

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7.5. NOTICE OF DEFAULT.

If a Default or an Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series, and if it is known to the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of the Default or the Event of Default, as the case may be, within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default (except if such Default or Event of Default has been validly cured or waived before the giving of such notice). Except in the case of a Default or an Event of Default in payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as the Board of Directors of the Trustee, the executive committee or any trust committee of such board and/or its Responsible Officers in good faith determine(s) that withholding the notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of that Series.

7.6. REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS.

If and to the extent required by the TIA, within 60 days after April 1 of each year, commencing the April 1 following the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder a brief report dated as of such April 1 that complies with TIA Section 313(a). The Trustee also shall comply with TIA Sections 313(b) and 313(c).

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders shall be filed with the SEC and any stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when the Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange or any delisting thereof, and the Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 313(d).

7.7. COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time reasonable compensation for its services. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee within 45 days after receipt of request for all reasonable out-of-pocket disbursements and expenses incurred or made by it in connection with its duties under this Indenture, including the reasonable compensation, disbursements and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Company shall indemnify the Trustee for, and hold it harmless against, any and all loss or liability incurred by it in connection with the acceptance or performance of its duties under this Indenture including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim asserted against the Trustee for which it may seek indemnity.

The failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not however relieve the Company of its obligations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company need not reimburse the Trustee for any expense or indemnify it against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee through its negligence or bad faith. To secure the payment obligations of the Company in this Section 7.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee except such money or property held in trust to pay the principal of, interest and premium, if any, on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

For purposes of this Section 7.7, the term “Trustee” shall include any trustee appointed pursuant to this Article 7.

7.8. REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company in writing at least 90 days in advance of such resignation.

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by notifying the removed Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with respect to that Series with the consent of the Company, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series at its election if:

(1) the Trustee fails to comply with, or ceases to be eligible under, Section 7.10;

(2) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent, or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee, under any Bankruptcy Law;

(3) a Custodian or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

 

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(4) the Trustee otherwise becomes incapable of acting.

(5) If the Trustee resigns or is removed, or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee, with respect to any Series of Securities for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint, by Board Resolution, a successor Trustee.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

If the Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series fails to comply with Section 7.10, any Securityholder of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately following such delivery, (i) the retiring Trustee with respect to one or more Series shall, subject to its rights under Section 7.7, transfer all property held by it as Trustee with respect to such Series to the successor Trustee, (ii) the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and (iii) the successor Trustee with respect to such Series shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series shall mail notice of its succession to each Securityholder of such Series.

7.9. SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION.

If the Trustee, or any Agent, consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust assets to, another corporation, subject to Section 7.10, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee or Agent, as the case may be.

7.10. ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION.

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Sections 310(a)(1), (2) and (5) in every respect. The Trustee (or in the case of a Trustee that is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the related bank holding company) shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $100,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b), including the provision in Section 310(b)(1). In addition, if the Trustee is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the Trustee, independently of such bank holding company, shall meet the capital requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(2). If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7.10, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Article 7.

7.11. PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.

The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a)  to the extent indicated therein.

7.12. PAYING AGENTS.

The Company shall cause each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to it and the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section 7.12:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as agent for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any obligor on the Securities) in trust for the benefit of Holders of the Securities or the Trustee;

(2) that it will at any time during the continuance of any Event of Default, upon written request from the Trustee, deliver to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by it together with a full accounting thereof; and

(3) that it will give the Trustee written notice within three Business Days after any failure of the Company (or by any obligor on the Securities) in the payment of any installment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same shall be due and payable.

 

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ARTICLE 8 –

AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

8.1. WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without notice to or consent of any Securityholder:

(1) to comply with Section 5.1;

(2) to provide for certificated Securities in addition to uncertificated Securities;

(3) to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the TIA;

(4) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to make any other change herein or in the Securities that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(5) to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture; or

(6) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series, and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any supplemental indenture authorized or permitted by the terms of this Indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which adversely affects its own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture.

8.2. WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

(a) The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series with the written consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series affected by such amendment or supplement without notice to any Securityholder. The Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each such Series affected by such amendment or supplement may waive compliance by the Company in a particular instance with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such Series without notice to any Securityholder. Subject to Section 8.4, without the consent of each Securityholder affected, however, an amendment, supplement or waiver may not:

(1) reduce the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver to this Indenture or the Securities;

(2) reduce the rate of, or change the time for payment of, interest on any Security;

(3) reduce the principal, or change the Stated Maturity, of any Security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(4) make any Security payable in money other than that stated in the Security;

(5) change the amount or time of any payment required by the Securities, or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption of the Securities, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

(6) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(7) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, or change any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of any Securities;

(8) make any changes in Section 6.6 or this Section 8.2, except to increase any percentage of Securities the Holders of which must consent to any matter; or

(9) take any other action otherwise prohibited by this Indenture to be taken without the consent of each Holder affected thereby.

(b) Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the receipt by the Trustee of evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee of the consent of the Securityholders as aforesaid and of the documents described in Section 8.6, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture, unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

 

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(c) It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders under this section to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.

After an amendment or supplement under this Section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to Securityholders a notice briefly describing the amendment or supplement. Any failure of the Company to mail any such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any supplemental indenture.

8.3. COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Every amendment to, or supplement of, this Indenture or the Securities shall comply with the TIA as then in effect.

8.4. REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.

Until an amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent conclusive and binding upon such Holder and every subsequent Holder of the same Security or portion thereof, and of any Security issued upon the transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in place thereof, even if notation of the consent is not made on any such Security. Any such Holder or subsequent Holder, however, may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security, if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to consent to any amendment, supplement or waiver, which record date shall be at least 30 days prior to the first solicitation of such consent. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only such Persons, shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, supplement or waiver, or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date.

After an amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, it shall bind every Securityholder, unless it makes a change described in any of clauses (1) through (9) of Section 8.2. In that case, the amendment, supplement, waiver or other action shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security; PROVIDED, that any such waiver shall not impair or affect the right of any Holder to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates without the consent of such Holder.

8.5. NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.

If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security of any Series, the Trustee may request the Holder of such Security to deliver it to the Trustee. In such case, the Trustee shall place an appropriate notation on such Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder. Alternatively, the Company, in exchange for such Security, may issue, and the Trustee shall authenticate, a new security that reflects the changed terms. Failure to make the appropriate notation or issue a new Security shall not affect the validity and effect of such amendment, supplement or waiver.

8.6. TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.

The Trustee shall sign any amendment, supplement or waiver authorized pursuant to this Article 8 if the amendment, supplement or waiver does not adversely affect the rights, duties, liabilities or immunities of the Trustee. If it does, the Trustee may, but need not, sign it. In signing or refusing to sign such amendment, supplement or waiver the Trustee shall be entitled to receive and, subject to Section 7.1, shall be fully protected in relying upon an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that such amendment, supplement or waiver is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Company may not sign an amendment or supplement until the Board of Directors of the Company approves it.

 

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ARTICLE 9 –

DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE

9.1. DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.

The Company may terminate its obligations under the Securities of any Series and this Indenture with respect to such Series, except the obligations referred to in the last paragraph of this Section 9.1, if there shall have been canceled by the Trustee, or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than any Securities of such Series that are asserted to have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced as provided in Section 2.8) and the Company has paid all sums payable by it hereunder or deposited all required sums with the Trustee.

After such delivery the Trustee upon request shall acknowledge in a writing prepared by or on behalf of the Company the discharge of the Company’s obligations under the Securities of such Series and this Indenture, except for those surviving obligations specified below.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company in Sections 7.7, 9.5 and 9.6 shall survive.

9.2. LEGAL DEFEASANCE.

The Company may at its option, by Board Resolution, be discharged from its obligations with respect to the Securities of any Series on the date upon which the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 below are satisfied (hereinafter, “Legal Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Legal Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the Securities of such Series and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, subject to Section 9.6, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same, as are delivered to it by the Company), except for the following, which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (A) the rights of Holders of outstanding Securities of such Series to receive solely from the trust funds described in Section 9.4 and as more fully set forth in such section, payments in respect of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of such Series when such payments are due, (B) the Company’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such Series under Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9, (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder (including claims of, or payments to, the Trustee under or pursuant to Section 7.7) and (D) this Article 9. Subject to compliance with this Article 9, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 9.2 with respect to the Securities of any Series notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 9.3 below with respect to the Securities of such Series.

9.3. COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

At the option of the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, the Company shall be released from its obligations with respect to the outstanding Securities of any Series under Sections 4.2 through 4.5, inclusive, and Section 5.1, with respect to the outstanding Securities of such Series, on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 are satisfied (hereinafter, “Covenant Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such specified section or portion thereof, whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such specified Section or portion thereof or by reason of any reference in any such specified section or portion thereof to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and the Securities of any Series shall be unaffected thereby.

9.4. CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

The following shall be the conditions to application of Section 9.2 or Section 9.3 to the outstanding Securities of a Series:

(1) the Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.10 who shall agree to comply with the provisions of this Article 9 applicable to it) as funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities, (A) money in an amount, or (B) U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, the principal of, and accrued interest and premium, if any, on, the outstanding Securities of such Series at the Stated Maturity of such principal, interest or premium, if any, or on dates for payment and redemption of such principal, interest and premium, if any, selected in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and of the Securities of such Series;

(2) no Event of Default or Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit, or shall have occurred and be continuing at any time during the period ending on the 91st day after the date of such deposit or, if longer, ending on the day following the expiration of the longest preference period under any Bankruptcy Law applicable to the Company in respect of such deposit as specified in the Opinion of Counsel identified in paragraph (8) below (it being understood that this condition shall not be deemed satisfied until the expiration of such period);

 

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(3) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not cause the Trustee to have a conflicting interest for purposes of the TIA with respect to any securities of the Company;

(4) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute default under, any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(5) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that, as a result of such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, neither the trust nor the Trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;

(6) in the case of an election under Section 9.2, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that or (ii) there has been a change in any applicable Federal income tax law with the effect that, and such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series or Persons in their positions will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

(7) in the case of an election under Section 9.3, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance, and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

(8) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Article 9 relating to either the Legal Defeasance under Section 9.2 or the Covenant Defeasance under Section 9.3 (as the case may be) have been complied with;

(9) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit under clause (1) was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any creditors of the Company or others; and

(10) the Company shall have paid, or duly provided for payment under terms mutually satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee, all amounts then due to the Trustee pursuant to Section 7.7.

9.5. DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

All money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 9.4 in respect of the outstanding Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities, of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal, accrued interest and premium, if any, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 9.4 or the principal, interest and premium, if any, received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the outstanding Securities.

Anything in this Article 9 to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to payment of any of its outstanding fees and expenses, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee as provided in Section 9.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

9.6. REINSTATEMENT.

If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this Article 9 until such time

 

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as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations, as the case may be, in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of, or accrued interest or premium, if any, on, any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

9.7. MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, all moneys then held by any Paying Agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee, or, if sufficient moneys have been deposited pursuant to Section 9.1, to the Company, and thereupon such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

9.8. MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE.

Any moneys deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent or then held by the Company in trust for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the Holder of such Security for two years after the date upon which the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Security shall have respectively become due and payable shall be repaid to the Company upon Company Request, or if such moneys are then held by the Company in trust, such moneys shall be released from such trust; and the Holder of such Security entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money shall thereupon cease; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Trustee or any such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may, at the expense of the Company, either mail to each Securityholder affected, at the address shown in the register of the Securities maintained by the Registrar, or cause to be published once a week for two successive weeks, in a newspaper published in the English language, customarily published each Business Day and of general circulation in the City of New York, New York, a notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of such mailing or publication, any unclaimed balance of such moneys then remaining will be repaid to the Company. After payment to the Company or the release of any money held in trust by the Company, Securityholders entitled to the money must look only to the Company for payment as general creditors, unless applicable abandoned property law designates another Person.

ARTICLE 10 –

MISCELLANEOUS

10.1. TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS.

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision which is required to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, the required provision shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the TIA which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.

10.2. NOTICES.

Any notice or communication shall be given in writing and delivered in Person, sent by facsimile (and receipt confirmed by telephone or electronic transmission report), delivered by commercial courier service or mailed by first-class mail, postage prepaid, addressed as follows:

If to the Company:

Sutro Biopharma, Inc.

310 Utah Avenue

Suite 150

South San Francisco, CA, 94080

Attention: Chief Financial Officer

Copy to:

Fenwick & West LLP

555 California Street

San Francisco, CA, 94104

 

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Fax: (650) 988-5200

Attention: Robert Freedman

If to the Trustee:

The Company or the Trustee by written notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications. Any notice or communication to the Company or the Trustee shall be deemed to have been given or made as of the date so delivered if personally delivered; when receipt is confirmed by telephone or electronic transmission report, if sent by facsimile; and three Business Days after mailing if sent by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid (except that a notice of change of address shall not be deemed to have been given until actually received by the addressee).

Any notice or communication mailed to a Securityholder shall be mailed to such Securityholder by first-class mail, postage prepaid, at such Securityholder’s address shown on the register kept by the Registrar.

Failure to mail, or any defect in, a notice or communication to a Securityholder shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders. If a notice or communication to a Securityholder is mailed in the manner provided above, it shall be deemed duly given, three Business Days after such mailing, whether or not the addressee receives it.

In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service, or by reason of any other cause, it shall be impossible to mail any notice as required by this Indenture, then such method of notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient mailing of such notice.

In the case of Global Securities, notices or communications to be given to Securityholders shall be given to the Depository, in accordance with its applicable policies as in effect from time to time.

In addition to the manner provided for in the foregoing provisions, notices or communications to Securityholders shall be given by the Company by release made to Reuters Economic Services and Bloomberg Business News.

10.3. COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS.

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or any other Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).

10.4. CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT.

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(1) an Officers’ Certificate (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

(2) an Opinion of Counsel (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

10.5. STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION.

Each certificate and opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than pursuant to Section 4.4) shall include:

(1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, it or he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable it or him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such covenant or condition has been complied with.

 

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10.6. RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS.

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or at meetings of Securityholders. The Registrar and Paying Agent may make reasonable rules for their functions.

10.7. BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT.

A “Business Day” is a day that is not a Legal Holiday. A “Legal Holiday” is a Saturday, a Sunday, a federally-recognized holiday or a day on which banking institutions are not authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to be open in the State of New York.

If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a Place of Payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period. “Place of Payment” means the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of a Series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section 2.2. If the regular record date is a Legal Holiday, the record date shall not be affected.

10.8. GOVERNING LAW.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, AS APPLIED TO CONTRACTS MADE AND PERFORMED WITHIN THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAW.

10.9. NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS.

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan, security or debt agreement of the Company or any Subsidiary thereof. No such indenture, loan, security or debt agreement may be used to interpret this Indenture.

10.10. NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS.

A director, officer, employee, stockholder or incorporator, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. Such waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issuance of the Securities.

10.11. SUCCESSORS.

All covenants and agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind the Company’s successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not. All agreements of the Trustee, any additional trustee and any Paying Agents in this Indenture shall bind their respective successors and assigns.

10.12. MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS.

The parties may sign multiple counterparts of this Indenture. Each signed counterpart shall be deemed an original, but all of them together represent one and the same agreement.

10.13. TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.

The table of contents, cross-reference sheet and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

10.14. SEVERABILITY.

Each provision of this Indenture shall be considered separable, and if for any reason any provision which is not essential to the effectuation of the basic purpose of this Indenture or the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby, and a Holder shall have no claim therefor against any party hereto.

 

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10.15. SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS.

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars (including Euros), then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time. For purposes of this Section 10.15, “Market Exchange Rate” shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, in the case of Euros, Market Exchange Rate shall mean the rate of exchange determined by the Commission of the European Union (or any successor thereto) as published in the Official Journal of the European Union (such publication or any successor publication, the “Journal”). If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, in its sole discretion and without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or, in the case of Euros, the rate of exchange as published in the Journal, as of the most recent available date, or quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange from one or more major banks in New York City or in the country of issue of the currency in question or, in the case of Euros, in Luxembourg or such other quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange as the Trustee, upon consultation with the Company, shall deem appropriate. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

All decisions and determinations of the Trustee regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be in the Trustee’s sole discretion, and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive to the extent permitted by law for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company and all Holders.

10.16. JUDGMENT CURRENCY.

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, or other amount on, the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, in which instance, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)) in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, and their respective corporate seals to be hereunto affixed and attested, all as of the day and year first above written.

 

SUTRO BIOPHARMA, INC.
By:  

 

  Name:  

 

  Title:  

 

 

[Name of Trustee]
By:  

 

  Name:  

 

  Title:  

 

 

By:  

 

  Name:  

 

  Title:  

 

 

29

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

 

 

LOGO

October 4, 2019

Sutro Biopharma, Inc.

310 Utah Avenue, Suite 150

South San Francisco, California 94080

Gentlemen/Ladies:

At your request, we have examined the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed by Sutro Biopharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on October 4, 2019 (the “Registration Statement”) in connection with the registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), of the offering and sale from time to time of (i) shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), (ii) shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”), (iii) one or more series of debt securities (the “Debt Securities”) issuable pursuant to an indenture (the “Indenture”) by and between the Company and a financial institution to be identified therein as trustee (the “Trustee”), (iv) warrants to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock and/or Debt Securities (the “Warrants”), (v) subscription rights to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock and/or Debt Securities (the “Subscription Rights”), and/or (vi) units consisting of any combination of such foregoing securities described in clauses (i) through (v) above (the “Units”), having an aggregate public offering price of up to $250,000,000. The Common Stock, the Preferred Stock, the Debt Securities, the Warrants, the Subscription Rights and the Units are collectively referred to herein as the “Securities.” The Securities may be sold from time to time by the Company as set forth in the Registration Statement, the prospectus contained within the Registration Statement (the “Prospectus”) and supplements to the Prospectus.

We advise you that we have also examined (i) the sales agreement prospectus filed, together with the Registration Statement and Prospectus, with the Commission on October 4, 2019 (the “Sales Agreement Prospectus”) relating to the sale by the Company through Cowen and Company, LLC, as the sales agent (the “Sales Agent”), from time to time of shares of Common Stock (the “Placement Shares”) having an aggregate maximum offering price of up to $75,000,000 pursuant to the Registration Statement and the Sales Agreement Prospectus for the sale of the Placement Shares included in the Registration Statement, and (ii) that certain Sales Agreement, dated as of October 4, 2019, by and between the Company and the Sales Agent (the “Sales Agreement”).

In connection with our opinion expressed below we have examined originals or copies of the Company’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Restated Certificate”) and Restated Bylaws (the “Restated Bylaws” and, together with the Restated Certificate, as each may be amended, modified or restated, the “Charter Documents”), certain corporate proceedings of the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”) and stockholders relating to the Registration Statement, the Company’s Restated Certificate and Restated Bylaws, and such other agreements, documents, certificates and statements of the Company, its transfer agent and public or government officials, as we have deemed advisable, and have examined such questions of law as we have considered necessary. We have assumed, and express no opinion as to, the genuineness of all signatures on documents submitted to us, the authenticity and completeness of all documents submitted to us as originals, the conformity to originals and completeness of all documents submitted to us as copies, the legal capacity of all persons or entities (except for the Company) executing the same, the absence of any undisclosed termination, modification, waiver or amendment to any document reviewed by us, the absence of any other extrinsic agreements or documents that might change or affect the interpretation or terms of documents we have reviewed, and the due authorization, execution and delivery of all such documents where due authorization, execution and delivery are prerequisites to the effectiveness thereof. In giving our opinion, we have also relied upon a good standing certificate regarding the Company issued by the Delaware Secretary of State dated October 4, 2019 and a management certificate addressed to us and dated of even date herewith executed by the Company containing certain factual representations (the “Management Certificate”).

We also have assumed that any certificates or instruments representing the Securities, including the Placement Shares, will be, when issued, properly signed by authorized officers of the Company, and, in the case of Debt Securities, properly authenticated in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and delivered to the intended recipients with the intent that the Company be bound thereby. Furthermore, with respect to the Company’s uncertificated capital stock, we assume that issued Common Stock, including any Placement Shares, will not be reissued by the Company in uncertificated form until any previously issued stock certificate representing such issued Common Stock has been surrendered to the Company in accordance with Section 158 of the Delaware


General Corporation Law, and that the Company will properly register the transfer of the Common Stock to the purchasers of such Common Stock on the Company’s record of uncertificated securities. We also have assumed that the Indenture at the time of execution, authentication, issuance and delivery of the Debt Securities will be a valid and legally binding obligation of the Trustee.

As to matters of fact relevant to this opinion, we have relied solely upon our examination of the documents referred to above and the Management Certificate and have assumed the current accuracy and completeness of the information obtained from the documents referred to above and the representations and warranties made by representatives of the Company to us, including but not limited to those set forth in the Management Certificate. We have made no independent investigation or other attempt to verify the accuracy of any of such information or to determine the existence or non-existence of any other factual matters.

We are admitted to practice law in the State of Washington, and we render this opinion only with respect to, and express no opinion herein concerning the application or effect of the laws of any jurisdiction other than (i) the existing laws of the State of Washington, (ii) the Delaware General Corporation Law, and (iii) solely with respect to whether or not the Debt Securities are the valid and binding obligations of the Company, the existing laws of the state of New York (clauses (i) through (iii) collectively, the “Applicable Laws”). To the extent that any Warrant Agreement, Subscription Rights Agreement or Unit Agreement (each as defined below) is governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of Washington, our opinion expressed below assumes that Internal Washington Law (as defined below) will exclusively apply to and govern such Warrant Agreement, Subscription Rights Agreement or Unit Agreement, without regard to any interpretation or construction that might be indicated by the laws stated as governing any such Warrant Agreement, Subscription Rights Agreement or Unit Agreement. As used herein “Internal Washington Law means the internal laws of the State of Washington applicable to a contract made by Washington residents in the State of Washington that selects Washington law as the governing law of such contract, without regard to any laws or equitable principles regarding choice of law, conflict of laws or public policies that might make any other law(s) applicable. Without limitation, we express no opinion with respect to the federal laws of the United States of America or the securities or “blue sky” laws of any state or any local or regional laws.

In connection with our opinions expressed below, we have assumed that, (i) at or prior to the time of the delivery of any of the Securities, including the Placement Shares, there will not have occurred any change in the law or the facts affecting the validity of the Securities, (ii) if any Debt Securities are issued, such Debt Securities will only be issued pursuant to the Indenture in the form filed with the Registration Statement as an exhibit and that there will not have occurred any change in law affecting the enforceability of the Debt Securities or the Indenture, (iii) all applicable covenants binding on or applicable to the Company restricting the issuance of Debt Securities will have been validly waived, (iv) the Registration Statement and any amendments (including any necessary post-effective amendments) will have been declared effective under the Securities Act, (v) at the time of the offer, issuance and sale of any Securities, including the Placement Shares, no stop order suspending the Registration Statement’s effectiveness will have been issued and remain in effect, (vi) no future amendments will be made to the Charter Documents that would be in conflict with or inconsistent with the Company’s right and ability to issue the Securities, including without limitation the Placement Shares, (vii) at the time of each offer, issuance and sale of any Securities, including without limitation the Placement Shares, the Company will have a sufficient number of authorized and unissued and unreserved shares of the applicable class or series of its capital stock included in (or purchasable upon exercise or conversion of) the Securities, including without limitation the Placement Shares, so issued and sold (after taking into account all other outstanding securities of the Company which may require the Company to issue shares of such applicable class or series) to be able to issue all such shares, and (viii) all purchasers of Securities, including without limitation the purchasers of the Placement Shares, will timely pay in full to the Company all amounts they have agreed to pay to purchase such Securities, including the Placement Shares, as approved by the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, and that the purchase price of any Securities, including the Placement Shares, that are shares of capital stock will not be less than the par value thereof. We also have assumed that the terms of any Debt Securities to be established subsequent to the date hereof, the issuance and delivery of Securities, including the Placement Shares, subsequent to the date hereof and the compliance by the Company with the terms of such Securities, including the Placement Shares, will not violate any applicable law (including, without limitation, any law relating to usury or similar laws) or result in a violation of any provision of any of the Charter Documents or of any instrument or agreement then binding upon the Company or any restriction imposed by any court or governmental body having jurisdiction over the Company.

This opinion is qualified by, and is subject to, and we render no opinion with respect to, the following limitations and exceptions to the enforceability of the Debt Securities:

 

  (1)

The effect of the laws of bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, arrangement, moratorium, fraudulent conveyance, assignment for the benefit of creditors, and other similar laws now or hereinafter in effect relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, including the effect of statutory or other laws regarding fraudulent transfers or preferential transfers.

 

  (2)

The effect of general principles of equity and similar principles, including, without limitation, concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, public policy and unconscionability, and the possible unavailability of specific performance, injunctive relief, or other equitable remedies, regardless of whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law.

 

2


  (3)

The effect of laws relating to usury or permissible rates of interest for loans, forbearances or the use of money.

We express no opinion regarding the effectiveness of any waiver or stay, extension or of unknown future rights. Further, we express no opinion regarding the effect of provisions relating to indemnification, exculpation or contribution to the extent such provisions may be held unenforceable as contrary to federal or state securities laws or public policy.

The Company has informed us that the Company intends to issue the Securities, including without limitation the Placement Shares, from time to time on a delayed or continuous basis. This opinion is limited to the Applicable Laws, including the rules and regulations thereunder, as in effect on the date hereof. We are basing this opinion on our understanding that, prior to issuing any Securities, excluding the Placement Shares, in connection with the Registration Statement, the Company will advise us in writing of the terms thereof and other information material thereto, will afford us an opportunity to review the operative documents pursuant to which such Securities are to be issued (including the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the applicable supplement to the Prospectus, as then in effect) and will file such supplement or amendment to this opinion (if any) as we may reasonably consider necessary or appropriate with respect to such Securities. However, we undertake no responsibility to monitor the Company’s future compliance with applicable laws, rules or regulations of the Commission or other governmental body. In particular, except with respect to the Placement Shares, we assume that the Company will obtain the requisite approval of the Board and the requisite approval of its stockholders, if required by the laws of the State of Delaware and the Charter Documents, or if necessary because the Company does not have a sufficient number of authorized but unissued and unreserved shares of its capital stock at the time of issuance to comply with any Securities. Except with respect to the Placement Shares, we also assume the Company will timely file any and all supplements to the Registration Statement and Prospectus as are necessary to comply with applicable laws in effect from time to time and duly amend its Restated Certificate to increase the authorized number of shares of its capital stock as necessary if the number of such shares to be sold pursuant to the Registration Statement would cause the Company to issue more such shares than it has authorized and unissued and unreserved.

With respect to our opinion expressed in paragraph (7) below, we have assumed that, upon the issuance of any of the Placement Shares, the total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding and reserved for future issuance will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under its Certificate of Incorporation, as then in effect.

Based upon the foregoing, we are of the following opinion:

1. With respect to the shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to the Registration Statement (other than the Placement Shares), when (i) the issuance of and the terms of the offering of such shares of Common Stock and related matters have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws and (ii) if required, certificates representing the shares of Common Stock have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered either (a) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Common Stock, upon payment of the consideration therefor (in an amount not less than the par value of the Common Stock) provided for therein and approved by the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, or (b) upon conversion or exercise of any other security of the Company, in accordance with the terms of such security or the instrument governing such security providing for such conversion or exercise as approved by the Board, for the consideration approved by the Board (in an amount not less than the par value per share of the Common Stock), then such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

2. With respect to any particular series of shares of Preferred Stock registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance and terms of such shares of Preferred Stock, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters, including the adoption of a certificate of designation relating to such Preferred Stock conforming to the Company’s Restated Certificate and Bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law (a “Certificate”) and the filing of such Certificate with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware (or the filing of an amendment to the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation to similar effect), have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws and (ii) if required, certificates representing the shares of Preferred Stock have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered either (a) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Preferred Stock, upon payment of the consideration therefor (in an amount not less than the par value per share of such Preferred Stock) provided for therein and approved by the Board or (b) upon conversion or exercise of any other security of the Company, in accordance with the terms of such security or the instrument governing such security providing for such conversion or exercise as approved by the Board, for the consideration approved by the Board (in an amount not less than the par value per share of the Preferred Stock), then such shares of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

3


3. With respect to any Debt Securities registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance of such Debt Securities has been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws, (ii) an Indenture relating to such Debt Securities in the form filed with the Registration Statement as an exhibit has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by each of the Company (by duly authorized officers of the Company) and the Trustee, (iii) the form and terms of the Debt Securities have been duly established in accordance with the Indenture pursuant to resolutions duly adopted by the Board and as set forth in an officer’s certificate or supplemental indenture duly authorized by the Board in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws and duly executed by an authorized officer of the Company, and (iv) instruments representing such Debt Securities have been duly executed and authenticated in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and any supplement thereto, and issued, sold and delivered in the manner and for the consideration approved by the Board and stated in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any prospectus supplement relating thereto (as amended as of the date of such issuance, sale and delivery), any applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement and upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Debt Securities, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein, then the Debt Securities will be validly issued and will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

4. With respect to any Warrants registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance and terms of such Warrants, the terms, execution and delivery of the warrant agreement relating to the Warrants (“Warrant Agreement”), the terms of the offering thereof and related matters have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws, (ii) the Warrant Agreement has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company, and (iii) such Warrants have been duly executed, issued and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Warrant Agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein and approved by the Board, such Warrants will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

5. With respect to any Subscription Rights registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance and terms of such Subscription Rights, the terms, execution and delivery of the subscription rights agreement relating to the Subscription Rights (“Subscription Rights Agreement”), the terms of the offering thereof and related matters have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, the stockholders of the Company in accordance with the Charter Documents and Applicable Laws, (ii) the Subscription Rights Agreement has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered, and (iii) such Subscription Rights have been duly executed, issued and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Subscription Rights Agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein and approved by the Board, such Subscription Rights will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

6. With respect to any Units registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the conditions outlined in the immediately preceding paragraphs (1) through (5) that apply to the Securities that make up such Units are all met, (ii) the issuance and terms of such Units, the terms, execution and delivery of the unit purchase agreement relating to such Units (“Unit Agreement”), the terms of the offering thereof and related matters have been duly authorized by all required corporate action of the Board and, if required, of the stockholders of the Company, (iii) the Unit Agreement has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company, and (iv) such Units have been duly executed, issued and delivered by the Company by duly authorized officers of the Company in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Unit Agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein and approved by the Board, such Units will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

7. The Placement Shares, to be issued and sold by the Company, have been duly authorized for issuance and, when issued, sold and delivered in the manner of and for consideration (of not less than par value per share of the Common Stock) in the manner contemplated by the Sales Agreement and in accordance with the resolutions duly adopted and to be duly adopted by the Board and to be duly adopted by the Placement Committee of the Board with respect to the offer, sale and issuance of the Placement Shares, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

We consent to the use of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and further consent to all references to us, if any, in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and Sales Agreement Prospectus constituting parts thereof and any amendments thereto. In giving this consent we do not thereby admit that we come within the category of persons whose consent is required by the Securities Act or by the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

[Concluding Paragraph Follows on Next Page]

 

4


This opinion is intended solely for use in connection with the issuance and sale of the Securities subject to the Registration Statement and is not to be relied upon for any other purpose. In providing this letter, we are opining only as to the specific legal issues expressly set forth above, and no opinion shall be inferred as to any other matter or matters. This opinion is rendered on, and speaks only as of, the date of this letter first written above, is based solely on our understanding of facts in existence as of such date after the aforementioned examination and does not address any potential changes in facts, circumstance or law that may occur after the date of this opinion letter. We assume no obligation to advise you of any fact, circumstance, event or change in the law or the facts that may hereafter be brought to our attention whether or not such occurrence would affect or modify any of the opinions expressed herein.

 

Very truly yours,
/s/ Fenwick & West LLP
FENWICK & WEST LLP

 

5

EX-23.1

Exhibit 23.1

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

We consent to the reference to our firm under the caption “Experts” in this Registration Statement (Form S-3) and related prospectuses of Sutro Biopharma, Inc. for the registration of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and units consisting of some or all of these securities and to the incorporation by reference therein of our report dated March 29, 2019, with respect to the financial statements of Sutro Biopharma, Inc., included in its Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

Redwood City, California

October 4, 2019